When fluid flow in the reservoir is considered, it is necessary to estimate the viscosity of the fluid, since viscosity represents an internal resistance force to flow given a pressure drop across the fluid. Unlike liquids, when the temperature and pressure of a gas is increased the viscosity increases as the molecules move closer together and collide more frequently. [Pg.107]

The entering fluid flows downward in a spiral adjacent to the wall. When the fluid reaches the bottom of the cone, it spirals upward in a smaller spiral at the center of the cone and cylinder. The downward [Pg.71]

For a single fluid flowing through a section of reservoir rock, Darcy showed that the superficial velocity of the fluid (u) is proportional to the pressure drop applied (the hydrodynamic pressure gradient), and inversely proportional to the viscosity of the fluid. The constant of proportionality is called the absolute permeability which is a rock property, and is dependent upon the pore size distribution. The superficial velocity is the average flowrate [Pg.202]

Figure 8.14 Single fluid flowing through a section of reservoir rock |

One of the major differences in fluid flow behaviour for gas fields compared to oil fields is the mobility difference between gas and oil or water. Recall the that mobility is an indicator of how fast fluid will flow through the reservoir, and is defined as [Pg.196]

The previous sections have considered the flow of fluid to the wellbore. The productivity index (PI) indicates that as the flowing wellbore pressure (Pwf) reduces, so the drawdown increases and the rate of fluid flow to the well increases. Recall [Pg.224]

Keunings, R., 1989. Simulation of viscoelastic fluid flow. Tn Tucker, C. L. HI (ed.), Computer Modeling for Polymer Proces.sing, Chapter 9, Hanser Publishers, Munich, pp. 403-469. [Pg.109]

Chen S and Doolen G D 1998 Lattice Boltzmann method for fluid flows Ann. Rev. Fluid Meoh. 30 329-64 [Pg.2290]

On a microscopic scale, the most important equation governing fluid flow in the reservoir is Darcy s law, which was derived from the following situation. [Pg.201]

Oil viscosity is an important parameter required in predicting the fluid flow, both in the reservoir and in surface facilities, since the viscosity is a determinant of the velocity with which the fluid will flow under a given pressure drop. Oil viscosity is significantly greater than that of gas (typically 0.2 to 50 cP compared to 0.01 to 0.05 cP under reservoir conditions). [Pg.109]

Laminae of clay and clay drapes act as vertical or horizontal baffles or barriers to fluid flow and pressure communication. Dispersed days occupy pore space-which in a clean sand would be available for hydrocarbons. They may also obstruct pore throats, thus impeding fluid flow. Reservoir evaluation, is often complicated by the presence of clays. This is particularly true for the estimation of hydrocarbon saturation. [Pg.78]

Nichols, B. D., Hirt, C. W. and Hitchkiss, R. S., 1980. SOLA-VOF a solution algorithm for transient fluid flow with multiple free surface boundaries. Los Alamos Scientific Laboratories Report No. La-8355, Los Alamos, NM. [Pg.109]

Townsend, P. and Webster, M. I- ., 1987. An algorithm for the three dimensional transient simulation of non-Newtonian fluid flow. In Pande, G. N. and Middleton, J. (eds). Transient Dynamic Analysis and Constitutive Laws for Engineering Materials Vul. 2, T12, Nijhoff-Holland, Swansea, pp. 1-11. [Pg.69]

Introduction and Commercial Application Section 8.0 considered the dynamic behaviour in the reservoir, away from the influence of the wells. However, when the fluid flow comes under the influence of the pressure drop near the wellbore, the displacement may be altered by the local pressure distribution, giving rise to coning or cusping. These effects may encourage the production of unwanted fluids (e.g. water or gas instead of oil), and must be understood so that their negative input can be minimised. [Pg.213]

Bell, B.C. and Surana, K. S, 1994. p-version least squares finite element formulations for two-dimensional, incompressible, non-Newtonian isothermal and non-isothcmial fluid flow. hit. J. Numer. Methods Fluids 18, 127-162. [Pg.108]

Petera, J., Nassehi, V. and Pittman, J.F.T., 1989. Petrov-Galerkiii methods on isoparametric bilinear and biquadratic elements tested for a scalar convection-diffusion problem. Ini.. J. Numer. Meth. Heat Fluid Flow 3, 205-222, [Pg.68]

This section will consider the behaviour of the reservoir fluids in the bulk of the reservoir, away from the wells, to describe what controls the displacement of fluids towards the wells. Understanding this behaviour is important when estimating the recovery factor for hydrocarbons, and the production forecast for both hydrocarbons and water. In Section 9.0, the behaviour of fluid flow at the wellbore will be considered this will influence the number of wells required for development, and the positioning of the wells. [Pg.183]

Note that in equation system (2.64) the coefficients matrix is symmetric, sparse (i.e. a significant number of its members are zero) and banded. The symmetry of the coefficients matrix in the global finite element equations is not guaranteed for all applications (in particular, in most fluid flow problems this matrix will not be symmetric). However, the finite element method always yields sparse and banded sets of equations. This property should be utilized to minimize computing costs in complex problems. [Pg.48]

Diffusional interception or Brownian motion, ie, the movement of particles resulting from molecular collisions, increases the probability of particles impacting the filter surface. Diffusional interception also plays a minor role in Hquid filtration. The nature of Hquid flow is to reduce lateral movement of particles away from the fluid flow lines. [Pg.139]

Shallow marine/ coastal (clastic) Sand bars, tidal channels. Generally coarsening upwards. High subsidence rate results in stacked reservoirs. Reservoir distribution dependent on wave and tide action. Prolific producers as a result of clean and continuous sand bodies. Shale layers may cause vertical barriers to fluid flow. [Pg.79]

There will be some uncertainty as to the well initials, since the exploration and appraisal wells may not have been completed optimally, and their locations may not be representative of the whole of the field. A range of well initials should therefore be used to generate a range of number of wells required. The individual well performance will depend upon the fluid flow near the wellbore, the type of well (vertical, deviated or horizontal), the completion type and any artificial lift techniques used. These factors will be considered in this section. [Pg.214]

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