K and a are depending on the number of interacting neighbors. As an example, a = 2.4 for a face cubic-centered lattice. [Pg.133]

An expression for the regime of very large compressions, where the emulsion is almost dry p 100%) can be derived following Princen s argument [4,5]. [Pg.133]

In highly concentrated emulsions, the droplets are forced to deform, that is, they [Pg.133]

A number of theoretical methodologies, spanning from high-level ab initio to empirical calculations have been applied to obtain information on the factors that influence the reactivity of Si—H bond towards radicals and atoms. [Pg.45]

High-level computational methods are limited, for obvious reasons, to very simple systems. In the previous section we showed the contribution of the theory for a better imderstanding of the entropic and enthalpic factors that influence the reactions of hydrogen atom with the simplest series of silanes Me4 SiH , where n = 1-3. Calculated energy barriers for the forward and reverse hydrogen atom abstraction reactions of Me, Et, i-Pr and t-Bu radicals with Me4- SiH , where n = 0-3, and (H3Si)3SiH have been obtained at [Pg.45]

The earliest theoretical exercises attempted to calculate the initial heat of adsorption of hydrogen and the corresponding bond energies mh in order to compare them with observed values, using an adaptation of the Pauling equation [Pg.129]

There have been many publications describing theoretical analyses of the potential energy surface for hydrogen chemisorption, with particular attention to the size and location of the energy barrier, and the importance of precursor states. Density functional theory (DFT) has been widely applied, and shows clearly the distinction between the metals of Groups 10 and 11 however the conclusion that chemisorption on gold is impossible may require modification as it does happen to some extent under some circumstances. Other recent applications have been to the interaction of hydrogen with palladium [Pg.130]

Theoretical work on the adsorption and desorption of hydrogen is perhaps of greatest interests to theoreticians who are honing their skills to devise ever more complex and possibly accurate procedures to describe the behaviour of physical systems. To experimentalists in heterogeneous catalysis however their work can seem arcane and remote from the realities of the natural world, and only rarely does it tackle questions about small metal particles, such as their interaction with the support and the dependence of shape on the reduction protocol. Theoretical insights into matters such as these would be really worthwhile. [Pg.131]

Theoretical approaches to predict the microdomain morphologies of linear ABC have been reported using density-functional theory (DFT) (Nakazawa and Ohta, 1993 Zheng and Wang, 1995), strong-segregation theory (SST) (Phan and Fredrickson, 1998), Monte Carlo (MC) (Dotera and Hatano, 1996 Ko et al, 2001), and self-consistent field theory (SCFT) [Pg.584]

After the misidentification of double gyroid (G) morphology as OBDD became clear (Hajduk et al, 1995), theorists interest shifted towards the stability of OTDD and Matsen (1998) used a spectral implementation of SCFT to interrogate the phase behavior of symmetric (( a = = be, Xar = Zbc = and/a =/c) linear ABC triblocks in the inter- [Pg.585]

The theoretical approaches for describing the RP and the inhuence of magnetic helds are well established. Let us hrst consider the case of a RP in which the members are sufficiently separated that the exchange and dipolar interactions are negligible. [Pg.172]

Why is it necessary to predict the protein secondary structure Research on the project related to the human genome, in which scientists are determining the sequences of bases in the entire human genome, produces on a daily basis new genes that serve for the synthesis of new proteins for which one must determine the structure. Thus, today we know the amino acid sequence for more than 30,000 proteins but the structure for only 3000 proteins. This disproportion is increasing daily, since it is expected that by the end of this century we will know the amino acid sequence for 100,000 proteins. On the other hand, the experimental determination of a protein structure is a rather slow process that is likely to remain so for the next decade. Thus, theoretical approaches to the determination of protein structures are especially important. The most reliable theoretical prediction of protein structure exists for cases in which one [Pg.121]

In the case of membrane proteins one distinguishes (1) the part that is present in the membrane and that mostly possesses the secondary structure of an a-helix and (2) the part that is outside of the membrane. This part is taken in all theoretical approaches as undefined structure although in reality it may possess the structure of an a-helix or P-strand equally to those in soluble proteins. But, because of the limited number of membrane proteins with known 3D structures, it is not possible to train the algorithm to predict the secondary structure for the soluble part of membrane proteins. Therefore, remedy algorithms for predicting the secondary structures of soluble proteins can be used. Among the available algorithms the most reliable is the PHD rnethod. [Pg.122]

It is generally believed that the structure of membrane proteins is simpler than that of soluble proteins because the lipid bilayer in which the membrane proteins are immersed diminishes the degrees of freedom. Thus, the prediction of the membrane protein structures is expected to be more accurate and the obtained models should be of considerable help when the activity of the membrane proteins is analyzed. [Pg.122]

The best known and most used procedure is the Kyte-Doolittle method which computes within the sliding window of specific width the hydrophobicity/am-phiphilicity of the segment. This represents a certain probability that the specific segment will or will not be present in the membrane. [Pg.123]

Valence band spectra provide information about the electronic and chemical structure of the system, since many of the valence electrons participate directly in chemical bonding. One way to evaluate experimental UPS spectra is by using di fingerprint method, i.e., a comparison with Imown standards. Another important approach is to utilize comparison with the results of appropriate model quantum-chemical calculations [4]. The combination with quantum-chemical calculations allow for an assignment of the different features in the electronic structure in terms of atomic or molecular orbitals or in terms of band structure. The experimental valence band spectra in some of the examples included in this chapter are interpreted with the help of quantum-chemical calculations. A brief outline and some basic considerations on theoretical approaches are outlined in the next section. [Pg.121]

During the last decade, the progress in theoretical methods and the access to quantum-chemical calculations has become more available. Nowadays, the use of quantum-chemical calculations in the interpretation of experimental UPS valence band spectra is a common approach [26-29]. [Pg.121]

The systems discussed in this chapter give some examples using different theoretical models for the interpretation of, primarily, UPS valence band data, both for pristine and doped systems as well as for the initial stages of interface formation between metals and conjugated systems. Among the various methods used in the examples are the following semiempirical Hartree-Fock methods such as the Modified Neglect of Diatomic Overlap (MNDO) [31, 32] and Austin Model 1 (AMI) [33] the non-empirical Valence Effective Hamiltonian (VEH) pseudopotential method [3, 34] and ab initio Hartree-Fock techniques. [Pg.122]

5 Electronic Structure of Surfaces and Interfaces in Conjugated Polymers [Pg.124]

Mills calculated the enhancement of dynamic dipole moments for a dipole moment on a smooth silver or copper surface with a silver tip above it, which [Pg.7]

Methods for quantum mechanical calculation of dipole moments and their IE s are well established. The dipole moment for any specified confirmation is defined by the nuclear coordinates of the various atoms n and their charges z , plus the electron density at each point in space expressed as a function of the vector re using the wave function [Pg.398]

The potential energy surface can now be obtained by the solution of eq. (10.6) with functions expanded in terms of the Slater determinants Df. [Pg.198]

In the Gibbs adsorption equation for multicomponent surface layers (2.22) the value of p for soluble components can refer both to the bulk and to the surface layer (as equilibrium exists), and for the insoluble components to the surface layer only. For systems with one insoluble and one soluble component, denoted by subscripts 1 and 2, respectively, and the assumption that the area per mole of the insoluble component 1 is Aj = l/F, Eq. (2.22) can be rewritten as [Pg.165]

The integration for constant p2 between the limits corresponding to two states of the monolayer (I and II, respectively) with different F values for the soluble or insoluble component, yields the difference of the product (AiFj) in these states [143,146] [Pg.165]

The Gibbs equation which expresses the total differential of the difference between the surface pressure of the mixed layer and that in absence of the insoluble surfactant (denoted by subscript 0) can be derived from Eq. (2.22) [Pg.165]

Hall argued this equation is more correct than Eq. (2.143) because, for infinitesimal adsorption of the two components, the products on the left hand side converge to a certain limiting value. [Pg.166]

Equation (2.144) leads also to a relation which expresses the difference in adsorption [146] assuming that the chemical potential of component 1 is constant [Pg.166]

The electronic, semiconductor, or band theory, as developed during the 1950s and early 60s, treats the catalytic surface of an oxide as a general entity. Reactions on the surface are effected by transfer of electrons into and out of the acceptor bands of a p-type semiconductor (or vice-versa for n-type donor bands). The theory showed modest success in rationalizing the hydrogenation and oxidation performance of some oxides, but is now considered inadequate for general use. However, as electron transfers are involved in such processes, the idea of acceptor bands warrants incorporation into many mechanistic interpretations, and semiconductor theory can provide useful guidelines for the selection of minor components to improve performance. [Pg.329]

A more sophisticated approach starts from molecular orbital theory, which in itself proves too tedious for all but simple molecules and complexes. However, a combination of electrostatic theory and crystal field theory has proved valuable in relating changes in the stabilization energy of d-orbitals with changes in coordination patterns and the number of d-electrons. In [Pg.329]

Cumene (isopropybenzene) hydroperoxide rearrangement Methanol to gasoline H2SO4 Zeolite (ZSM-5) [Pg.330]

Hydration of olefins H2SO4 Acid ion-exchange resin [Pg.330]

Hydrogenation General olefin, aromatic Supported Ni or noble metal [Pg.330]

A simple titeory. The original idea of Flory for calculating the rize of a polymer is to consider the balance of two effects a repulsive excluded volume interaction which tends to swell the polymer, and the elastic energy ariring from the chain connectivity u ch tends to shrink the polymer. This idea can be put into a partially simple form of theory. Consider the free energy of a chain whose end-to-end vector is fixed at R. This is given by [Pg.27]

To estimate the effect of the excluded volume interaction, we disregard the connectivity of the chain, and calculate the interaction energy of a [Pg.27]

The average size of the polymer can be estimated from the value of R which minimizes A. From dAldR = 0, we have [Pg.28]

This gives the exponent v = 3/5 already quoted, which is dose to the experimental value. [Pg.28]

Though the etqxment v is close to the experimmital value, the prediction of this theory for other quantities turns out to be inadequate for example, the expression for Ae free energy (eqn (2.98)) is not consistent with the distribution function of the end-to-end vector obtained by computer simulation. Also it suffras from an unreasonable behaviour of the entropy. ----- [Pg.28]

The resulting energy gain ean be represented by an integral over the polarizabilities of the single molecules, or more roughly by their classical oscillator strengths. [Pg.9]

The exact quantum theoretical treatment of the dispersion effect involves quantizing matter and electromagnetic fields as well. The coupled electron-photon system is to be treated on the basis of quantum electrodynamics. Using the method of second quantization, it is possible to build up the total Hamiltonian from an electron Hamiltonian H, a photon Hamiltonian and an electron-photon interaction operator Hin,. The dispersion energy between two particles now results in fourth order perturbation. Each contribution is due to the interaction of two electrons with, fwo photons. [Pg.9]

It is one of the objectives of the quantum electrodynamic procedure to check the errors and limits of these semiclassical approaches. In particular there is the question of statistics. What is the reason for the dominant influence of Bose statistics in the final energy expression Another question is up to which order of the electron-photon coupling operator do the semiclassical approaches hold Is one of these approaches more powerful than the other or limited to certain molecules or separations [Pg.9]

The quantum electrodynamic procedure replaces electrons and photons by quasi-particles. The quasi-electrons are renormalized with respect to terms quadratic in the electron-photon coupling operator. They differ from Fermi statistics with respect to fourth order terms. Similarly, the quasi-photons are renormalized with respect to terms quadratic in the electron-photon coupling operator. They differ from Bose statistics with respect to fourth order terms. [Pg.9]

An immediate effect of large separations of the interacting particles is retardation. When discussing the different contributions to van der Waals attraction in the preceding section, we introduced electrostatic potentials Find(j-ij) and These potentials do not take [Pg.10]

Agrawal, Cojan et al. [109-111] treated explicitly the linear and non-linear optical properties of PDAs. They computed the electronic energy levels using a Hiickel formalism. They computed a static = 0.7 x 10 ° esu for PTS and = 0.25 x 10 ° esu for TCDU. This model neglects electron-electron interaction and therefore excitonic effects. The model yields the correct order of magnitude for x but the wrong sign. [Pg.170]

The phase space filling (PSF) model was developed to describe non-resonant NLO properties in semiconductors [112, 113], especially in quantum well structures [114]. Greene et al. adapted this model to one-dimensional polymer chains [115, 116]. The model is only applicable to systems were the low energy absorption band is excitonic, as is the case with PDAs [117], Formation of excitons is limited by the number of available electron states that are necessary to form the exciton. With an increasing number of excitons, the dipole momentum for forming a new exciton is reduced. The exciton band bleaches. [Pg.170]

As the following measurements will show, the PSF model seems to describe best the non-linear optical behaviour of polydiacetylenes. A very important prediction of this model is the proportionality of x and a in the near-resonant frequency regime [115]. This behaviour was foimd in polydiacetylenes, strongly supporting the PSF theory [118]. [Pg.170]

In still another approach, Cramer and Truhlar have pursued a combined [Pg.97]

In a more recent study, Hillier placed two water molecules around the oxygen of allyl vinyl ether and its transition state for formation of 4-pentenal in an MP2/RHF/6-31G calculation [56]. When the SCRF model was used, no net decrease in activation free energy was obtained at the /= 1 level (atomic monopoles) and lack of convergence accompanied attempts to use higher terms in the multipole expansion. However, the PCM model provided a net energy decrease of 4.3kcalmol, which corresponds favorably to experiment. Somewhat disconcerting, however, were the calculated kinetic isotope effects = 1.149 and =0.919), which differed from the exper- [Pg.98]

The Claisen rearrangement of allyl vinyl ethers is an effective synthetic tool for introducing a y, 8-unsaturated carbonyl system with transfer of asymmetry from the double bonds to the newly formed a, carbon-carbon bond. The reaction is intramolecular and highly exothermic so that relatively unstable unsaturated systems can be prepared. The only drawback is the high temperature necessary to effect the reaction, but its rate can be enhanced by [Pg.98]

The range of shielding observed for symmetric cobalt(III) complexes led Griffith and Orgel to their expression for 7 (the paramagnetic contribution to a) based on the [Pg.539]

Modified forms of the Griffith and Orgel expression have been derived for Co complexes of lower symmetry. In such cases, the appropriate average of all [Pg.543]

The expressions referred to above are derived from the ligand-field model, which is inappropriate for the highly covalent complexes of metals in low oxidation states and can lead to incorrect results. Thus, MO approaches, tailored to the particular [Pg.543]

Complexes with N and S bonded thiocyanate have intermediate shifts Reference 190 includes values for some incorrectly formulated but probably related species py-O = pyndme-AT-oxide, pip = piperidine [Pg.545]

Summary of Pt Chemical Shift Data for Complexes in Less Common Oxidation States [Pg.546]

Most models developed to describe the physical aging process are based on the idea of free volume in the polymer. Some only attempt to model the observed behavior, while others take a more holistic approach and try to understand the relationship between the molecular relaxation events and the distribution of free volume in the sample. [Pg.202]

A more elaborate theoretical approach develops the concept of surface molecular orbitals and proceeds to evaluate various overlap integrals [119]. Calculations for hydrogen on Pt( 111) planes were consistent with flash desorption and LEED data. In general, the greatly increased availability of LEED structures for chemisorbed films has allowed correspondingly detailed theoretical interpretations, as, for example, of the commonly observed (C2 x 2) structure [120] (note also Ref. 121). [Pg.704]

Figure B2.5.20. The combined experimental and theoretical approach Molecular spectra and motion (after [18]). |

Brivio G P and Trioni M I 1999 The adiabatic molecule-metal surface interaction theoretical approaches Rev. Mod. Phys. 71 231-65... [Pg.2237]

This chapter concentrates on describing molecular simulation methods which have a counectiou with the statistical mechanical description of condensed matter, and hence relate to theoretical approaches to understanding phenomena such as phase equilibria, rare events, and quantum mechanical effects. [Pg.2239]

Because this problem is complex several avenues of attack have been devised in the last fifteen years. A combination of experimental developments (protein engineering, advances in x-ray and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), various time-resolved spectroscopies, single molecule manipulation methods) and theoretical approaches (use of statistical mechanics, different computational strategies, use of simple models) [5, 6 and 7] has led to a greater understanding of how polypeptide chains reach the native confonnation. [Pg.2642]

An excellent summary of theoretical approaches to VER, their significance and comparison to experiment. [Pg.3053]

The input to a minimisation program consists of a set of initial coordinates for the system. The initial coordinates may come from a variety of sources. They may be obtained from an experimental technique, such as X-ray crystallography or NMR. In other cases a theoretical method is employed, such as a conformational search algorithm. A combination of experimenfal and theoretical approaches may also be used. For example, to study the behaviour of a protein in water one may take an X-ray structure of the protein and immerse it in a solvent bath, where the coordinates of the solvent molecules have been obtained from a Monte Carlo or molecular dynamics simulation. [Pg.275]

Essex J W, C A Reynolds and W G Richards 1989. Relative Partition Coefficients from Partition Functions A Theoretical Approach to Drug Transport. Journal of the Chemical Society Chemical Communications 1152-1154. [Pg.650]

Among the authors whose contribution has been important in the past, either by their experimental work or by their theoretical approach, the names of Koenig. Hamer, Fischer. Brooker, Kiprianov, Sklar, Schwarzen-bach, Eistert, Dimroth, and Platt are well familiar to scientists having an interest in the field of methine dyes, as well as more recently those of Kuhn, Wizinger, Scheibe, Hiinig, Van Dormael, Dahne, and Fabian. [Pg.68]

To circumvent this need for calibration as well as to better understand the separation process itself, considerable effort has been directed toward developing the theoretical basis for the separation of molecules in terms of their size. Although partially successful, there are enough complications in the theoretical approach that calibration is still the safest procedure. If a calibration plot such as Fig. 9.14 is available and a detector output indicates a polymer emerging from the column at a particular value of Vj, then the molecular weight of that polymer is readily determined from the calibration, as indicated in Fig. 9.14. [Pg.644]

J. P. Knapp and M. F. Doherty, "Minimum Entrainer Flows for Extractive Distillation. A Bifurcation Theoretic Approach," submitted to AIChE J. (1993). [Pg.200]

Fixed Granttlar-Bed Filters Fixed-bed filters composed of granules have received considerable theoretical and experimental study [Thomas and Yoder, AMA Arch. Ind. Health, 13, 545 (1956) 13, 550 (1956) Knettig and Beeckmans, Can. J. Chem. Eng., 52, 703 (1974) Schmidt et al., J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc., 28, 143 (1978) Tardos et al.,y. Air Pollut. Control Assoc., 28, 354 (1978) and Gutfin-ger and Tardos, Atmos. Environ., 13, 853 (1979)]. The theoretical approach is the same as that used in the treatment of deep-bed fibrous filters. [Pg.1605]

II. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO STUDYING DRUG-RECEPTOR INTERACTIONS... [Pg.352]

BM Pettitt, M Karplus. The potential of mean force surface for the alanine dipeptide in aqueous solution A theoretical approach. Chem Phys Lett 121 194-201, 1985. [Pg.391]

The molecular and liquid properties of water have been subjects of intensive research in the field of molecular science. Most theoretical approaches, including molecular simulation and integral equation methods, have relied on the effective potential, which was determined empirically or semiempirically with the aid of ab initio MO calculations for isolated molecules. The potential parameters so determined from the ab initio MO in vacuum should have been readjusted so as to reproduce experimental observables in solutions. An obvious problem in such a way of determining molecular parameters is that it requires the reevaluation of the parameters whenever the thermodynamic conditions such as temperature and pressure are changed, because the effective potentials are state properties. [Pg.422]

Judging from our present knowledge, such a description is far from the whole story. The article of Benderskii and Goldanskii [1992] addressed mostly the vast amount of experimental data accumulated thus far. On the other hand, the major applications of QTST involved gas-phase chemical reactions, where quantum effects were not dominant. All this implies that there is a gap between the possibilities offered by modern quantum theory and the problems of low-temperature chemistry, which apparently are the natural arena for testing this theory. This prompted us to propose a new look at this field, and to consistently describe the theoretical approaches which are adequate even at T = 0. [Pg.7]

Eor further details of the history, experimental set-up, and theoretical approaches of LEED please refer to books by Pendry [2.241], van Hove and Tong [2.242], van Hove, Weinberg, and Chan [2.243], and Clarke [2.244]. This article relies extensively on these works. [Pg.72]

It is perhaps not too fanciful to compare the stormy history of liquid crystals to that of colour centres in ionic crystals resolute empiricism followed by fierce strife between rival theoretical schools, until at last a systematic theoretical approach led to understanding and then to widespread practical application. In neither of these domains would it be true to say that the empirical approach sufficed to generate practical uses such uses in fact had to await the advent of good theory. [Pg.297]

The fin heat transfer is determined by using fin efficiency. The fin efficiency is calculated using a theoretical approach where the whole fin is considered to be at the same temperature as the fin base. The required parameters necessary to determine the fin efficiency are shown in Fig. 9.10. [Pg.699]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.329 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.12 , Pg.91 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.96 ]

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