Taste characteristics in general determine applicability of intense sweeteners. A time-intensity profile of sweetness perception similar to sucrose is desirable, and a delay in sweetness onset or a lingering sweetness are generally perceived as less pleasant. Side-tastes like bitter, liquorice or metallic taste are disadvantages which limit the applicability of some sweeteners. [Pg.230]

Simple applicability of sweeteners is desirable. Good solubility in water generally facilitates application as many foods, and, of course, beverages contain substantial amounts of water. High solubility allows use of the sweeteners in stock solutions, which is advantageous for simple dosing and blending. [Pg.230]

Bulk sweeteners are distinguished by high stability at elevated temperatures. They do not undergo caramelisation reactions like sucrose. They do not react with common food constituents either. As a result products containing bulk sweeteners instead of carbohydrates may be more pale than sugar-based products and may have a slightly different flavour. Such differences can, however, be compensated for by slight modifications of recipes, if necessary. [Pg.231]

As some bulk sweeteners are hygroscopic, different packaging materials may be necessary for products containing these sweeteners. [Pg.231]

Inequality Constrained Problems To solve inequality constrained problems, a strategy is needed that can decide which of the inequality constraints should be treated as equalities. Once that question is decided, a GRG type of approach can be used to solve the resulting equality constrained problem. Solving can be split into two phases phase 1, where the go is to find a point that is feasible with respec t to the inequality constraints and phase 2, where one seeks the optimum while maintaining feasibility. Phase 1 is often accomphshed by ignoring the objective function and using instead... [Pg.486]

Flence, for a sinusoidal input, the steady-state system response may be calculated by substituting. v = )lu into the transfer function and using the laws of complex algebra to calculate the modulus and phase angle. [Pg.147]

Substances intended solely for scientific research and development in quantities less than 100 kg per year. Substances placed on the market for process-orientated research and development with a limited number of customers registered with die notifier. The aim of die notification systems is to identify possible risks posed to people and the environment from placing new substances on the market. A notification comprises data on the chemical identity of the substance an estimate of the quantity of the substance to be placed on the EC market details of the functions and uses of the substance Table 14.12 Notification bands ... [Pg.458]

Nevertheless, the formal A/ scaling has spawned approaches which reduce the dependence to A/. This may be achieved by fitting the electron density to a linear combination of functions, and using the fitted density in evaluating the J integrals in the Coulomb term. [Pg.191]

In previous studies (56,57) a bilayer was modeled with atomic detail of the hydrocarbon chain, including the proper dihedral angle functions and using flexible bond angles, but the aqueous layer was not represented. [Pg.115]

Considering the success of fragment methods, which apply additive models for log P predichon, one can assume that addihve approaches may also sahsfactory work for MLP. Indeed, similar to the Generalized Born model, one can consider fragments of molecules as centers of some potenhal functions and use an empirically defined distance function ) to calculate the MLP value by ... [Pg.390]

Having computed (5yT/ 5k)T we can proceed and obtain a linear equation for Ak°H) by substituting Equation 10.9 into the least squares objective function and using the stationary criterion (5S/5k(l+l)) = 0. The resulting equation is of the form... [Pg.172]

The optimum time between shut-downs can be found by determining the relationship between cycle time and cost per unit of production (the objective function) and using one of the optimisation techniques outlined in this section to find the minimum. [Pg.30]

Another advantage of frequency response analysis is that one can identify the process transfer function with experimental data. With either a frequency response experiment or a pulse experiment with proper Fourier transform, one can construct the Bode plot using the open-loop transfer functions and use the plot as the basis for controller design.1... [Pg.146]

main idea is as follows. For convenience let a and b be regarded as two distinct monadic function letters so a(x) and b(x) are formally distinct functions. We shall again omit parentheses in composing functions, and use, for example, abaa(x) instead of a(b(a(a(x)))). We also let interpreted functions compose in the usual way so that, for example, I(abaaXx) =... [Pg.72]

When you build a design from components, you don t need to know how they are represented as objects or as instances of a classes or know how the connectors between components work.2 In federated systems, just as in 00 programs, each component is a collection of software it is chosen for the support it provides of the corresponding business function and uses local data representations best suited to the software. Just as in OO programs, objects must access the information held by other objects, so in a component architecture, components intercommunicate through well-defined interfaces so as to preserve mutual encapsulation. [Pg.414]

OCL uses a Smalltalk-based block syntax to allow you to define some kinds of functions conveniently and inline, but it does not provide corresponding type rules for this based on generic types. For our discussion here, we treat blocks as first-class functions and use the syntax (T1 X T2 X T3 -> T ) for such a function. This is purely a syntactic convenience functions can be modeled as objects. Any function f (a,b) c can be described as an object with a single method eval (a, b) c. Thus,... [Pg.706]

Whole oilseeds and legumes and their derivatives (defatted flours, and protein concentrates and isolates) are used in traditional foods as sources of protein and for their texture-modifying functions. This article reviews, on a comparative basis, processes for preparation of vegetable food proteins, compositions and characteristics of the resulting food ingredients, and their functionalities and uses in traditional foods. [Pg.37]

On Lavoisier, see Bernadette Bensaude-Vincent, "A Founder Myth in the History of Science The Lavoisier Case," 5378, in Loren Graham et al., eds., Functions and Uses of Disciplinary Histories. Sociology of the Sciences Yearbook VII (Dordrecht Reidel, 1983). [Pg.40]

Another type of Cinchona alkaloid catalyzed reactions that employs azodicarbo-xylates includes enantioselective allylic amination. Jprgensen [51-53] investigated the enantioselective electrophilic addition to aUyhc C-H bonds activated by a chiral Brpnsted base. Using Cinchona alkaloids, the first enantioselective, metal-free aUyhc amination was reported using alkylidene cyanoacetates with dialkyl azodi-carboxylates (Scheme 12). The product was further functionalized and used in subsequent tandem reactions to generate useful chiral building blocks (52, 53). Subsequent work was applied to other types of allylic nitriles in the addition to a,P-unsaturated aldehydes and P-substituted nitro-olefins (Scheme 13). [Pg.156]

Kettering M, Weber D, Sterner O, Ankem T, Secondary metabolites of fungi — Functions and uses, BlOspectrum 10 147, 2004. [Pg.496]

The function F(l,2) is in fact the space part of the total wave function, since a non-relativistic two-electron wave function can always be represented by a product of the spin and space parts, both having opposite symmetries with respect to the electrons permutations. Thus, one may skip the spin function and use only the space part of the wave function. The only trace that spin leaves is the definite per-mutational symmetry and sign in Eq.(14) refers to singlet as "+" and to triplet as Xi and yi denote cartesian coordinates of the ith electron. A is commonly known angular projection quantum number and A is equal to 0, 1, and 2 for L, II and A symmetry of the electronic state respectively. The linear variational coefficients c, are found by solving the secular equations. The basis functions i(l,2) which possess 2 symmetry are expressed in elliptic coordinates as ... [Pg.177]

Returning once again to the questions of function and uses, the old concept of flavonoids being merely the by-products of cellular metabolism, which are simply compartmentalized in solution in the cell vacuole, is well and truly past its use-by date. For a start, studies have revealed that flavonoids are also commonly found on the outer surfaces of leaves and flowers, albeit only the aglycone form. Additionally, flavonoids have been shown over the past few years to be found in the cell wall, the cytoplasm, in oil bodies, and associated with the nucleus and cell proteins, as well as in the vacuole. Even in the vacuole, flavonoids are not necessarily found free in solution. For example, protein-bound flavonoids have been isolated from lisianthus and other flowers in which a structurally specific binding has been identified (in anthocyanic vacuolar inclusions). It is probable that flavonoid location and specific protein binding properties will ultimately prove to relate directly to their function in plants. [Pg.1210]

Due to the high barrier, it is safe to assume that the induction time is much shorter (by a factor of e P ) than the reaction time (1/T) so that the time dependence on the right hand side of Eq. 13 may be ignored. Then, noting that the derivative of a step function is a Dirac delta function, and using detailed balance one finds the desired formula ... [Pg.9]

Some drugs, including sulfaquinoxaline, sulfadimethoxine, sulfame-thoxypyridazine, sulfachlorpyrazine, sulfamethazine, sulfaguanidine, furazolidone, nitrofurazone, tetracycline, and chlortetracycline, in addition to their role as coccidiostats, are also used as antibacterials. These drugs will not be discussed in this chapter since they have been discussed previously. On the other hand, other compounds such as roxarsone, are classified as growth promoters and therefore will be described in the corresponding chapter. This chapter is limited to compounds whose primary function and use are as antiprotozoals. [Pg.156]

Finally, on integrating the delta function and using the partially reflecting boundary condition, noting there is no flux over the outer boundary... [Pg.375]

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