Sinj is an input state to unit j sout, Sout, is an output state from unit j [Pg.72]

SP (j) selling price for the product associated with operation j [Pg.74]

The overall model is made up of two modules that are built within the same framework. One module focuses on the exploration of water reuse/recycle opportunities and the other on proper sequencing to capture the time dimension. To facilitate understanding, these modules are presented separately in the following sections. [Pg.74]

Scenario 1 Formulation for fixed outlet concentration without reusable water storage [Pg.75]

A reactive transport model, as the name implies, is reaction modeling implemented within a transport simulation. It may be thought of as a reaction model distributed over a groundwater flow. In other words, we seek to trace the chemical reactions that occur at each point in space, accounting for the movement of reactants to that point, and reaction products away from it. [Pg.301]

We formalize the discussion below in terms of Q, the mobile concentration of a species component At, as defined by Equation 20.15. We bear in mind that, even [Pg.301]

In the previous chapter (Section 20.3), we showed the equation describing transport of a non-reacting solute in flowing groundwater (Eqn. 20.24) arises from the divergence principle and the transport laws. By this equation, the time rate of change in the dissolved concentration of a chemical component at any point in the domain depends on the net rate the component accumulates or is depleted by transport. The net rate is the rate the component moves into a control volume, less the rate it moves out. [Pg.302]

For a reacting solute, the net rate of accumulation is the rate due to transport, plus the rate chemical reactions add the component to the groundwater, or less the rate they remove it. Including the effects of reaction in Equation 20.24, and allowing porosity p to vary with position and time, gives [Pg.302]

Rj is reaction rate (mol cm-3 s-1), the net rate at which chemical reactions add component i to solution, expressed per unit volume of water. As before, Q is the component s dissolved concentration (Eqns. 20.14—20.17), Dxx and so on are the entries in the dispersion tensor, and (vx, vy) is the groundwater velocity vector. For transport in a single direction, v, the equation simplifies to, [Pg.302]

To sum up, a rail transportation model for multiple products shipped by trains between chemical production sites can be formulated as a multi-layer, multi-commodity time-space expanded network flow model. In other words, an operational multi-chemical rail transportation problem is provided (in short MC-RTP). [Pg.94]

In the network model each chemical corresponds to a main layer representing the infrastructure of this chemical. The main layer consists of four sub-layers which are dedicated to [Pg.94]

Grey arrows indicate (passive) flows of chemicals and (empty) RTCs. Marked by black arrows is the following sequence of activities In period 1 empty RTCs are shipped from site 2 to site 1 where they are needed to load a certain quantity of the chemical in period 2. I.e. a flow between forth and third sub-layer indicates a change in the RTCs states. [Pg.94]

Correspondingly, a quantity of the chemical is transferred from the tanks (first sub-layer) to the mobile stock (second sub-layer). In period 3 the loaded RTCs depart by train from site 1 carrying the chemical to site 2 where they arrive in period 4 (second and third sub-layer). In this period the RTCs are unloaded such that the local chemical stocks are replenished and, simultaneously, the RTCs are emptied. In this sequence two shipments are performed, i.e. (at least) two trains are chartered. [Pg.95]

To formalize the sketched network flow model, the remaining notation is introduced as follows A shipment flow of chemical s from site i to site j in period t is denoted by Xijts (second sub-layer). Shipment flows of loaded and empty RTCs are denoted by and respectively (third and forth sub-layer). Unloadiug flows and loading flows of [Pg.95]

The purpose of this chapter is to set up a mathematical model for component material balances and to solve it for different sets of separation specifications. [Pg.165]

The separation column is assumed to have one feed and two products overhead (or distillate) and bottoms. The feed has a fixed flow rate and composition. The temperatures and pressures of the feed and products and of streams within the column are of no concern in the present context. Moreover, the column configuration, number of stages, and internal vapor and liquid flows are immaterial since the focus is on the net performance of a black box column. [Pg.165]

Let the feed stream F, with molar flow rate F, contains C components with known mole fractions, Zj, Zj,. .., Z. The overhead and bottoms molar flow rates are D and B, respectively. As with the equilibrium stage discussed in Chapter 2, the products of the column may be completely deflned in terms of the overhead mole fractions, Tl, T Tc, the bottoms mole fractions, X, X2,. .., Xc, and the distillate fraction, f = D/F. [Pg.165]

These 2C+1 parameters are considered the primary variables. They are interrelated by C material balance equations [Pg.165]

Note that the summation Z = 1 does not constitute an additional independent equation since it may be obtained by summing up Equation 4.1 over all the components and combining the result with Equation 4.2. [Pg.166]

In the remainder of the chapter, wave dynamics in integrated reaction separation processes will be studied in more detail. The analysis is based on a simple mathematical model, which will be discussed in the following section. [Pg.153]

The following is based on a simple model system, as illustrated in Fig. 5.4. The system consists of two homogeneous phases which exchange mass across a phase boundary and have convective transport in countercurrent direction. In addition, [Pg.153]

An analogous treatment is possible if chemical reactions take place in phase ( ), or even in both phases by adding suitable reaction terms in the corresponding model equations. [Pg.154]

In this formulation, N is the number of independent components, Nr the number of independent reactions, z and t are dimensionless space and time according to [Pg.155]

In contrast to this, in (reactive) chromatography usually mass or molar concentrations are used. Then, j and r are the corresponding rates of change of these quantities, and a and / are the ratios of the volumetric hold-ups and the volumetric flow rates in both phases. N is equal to Ns, the number of solutes. For the details, we refer to Ref. [11]. [Pg.155]

The initial and boundary conditions are defined by the following equations [Pg.210]

From Fick s first law, the fluxes to the electrode surface, and through the membrane layer are given by, respectively [Pg.210]

From geometric considerations, the maximum concentration is given by [Pg.210]

All attempts to explain the beginning generate more questions than answers. Wielding Occam s razor results in the Buddhist description of the world as uncreated, or as summarized by Bertrand RusselE [Pg.306]

Until the parallel between number and cosmos is demonstrated to be an illusion we shall use this idea to model the universe. The power of this approach lies therein that all regularities in the physical world can be reduced to the same mathematical rules as the commensurable relationships in the solar system. The same mathematics that optimizes the distribution of matter in spiral galaxies and solar systems, shapes the growth of nautilus shells and sunflower heads. This ubiquitous symmetry, known as self-similarity is [Pg.306]

All available evidence points at projective topology. According to a modern encyclopaedic compendium of mathematics (Gowers, 2008), which features a nautilus shell on the dust cover, [Pg.307]

Addition of ideal points at infinity results in the definition of jvdimensional projective space by n - -1 homogeneous coordinates, which remains valid on multiplication by an arbitrary gauge factor, the fundamental operation in field theory and wave mechanics. This property disappears on mapping to affine space where it is the subject of a special assumption. The unification of the electromagnetic and gravitational fields appears naturally only in projective space. [Pg.307]

In projective relativity the field equations contain, in addition to the gravitational and electromagnetic fields, also the relativistic wave equation of Schrodinger and, as shown by Hoffinann (1931), are consistent with Dirac s equation, although the correct projective form of the spin operator had clearly not been found. The problem of spin orientation presumably relates to the appearance of the extra term, beyond the four electromagnetic and ten gravitational potentials, in the field equations. It correlates with the time asymmetry of the magnetic field and spin. [Pg.307]

The values of a, b, and f dbldp) are fitted in several ranges of Re. Pereira Duarte et al. [61] estimated from Yagi and Wakao correlation [71] for mass transfer. According to this reference, 1 = 113, while a = 0.5 and / = 0.6 for Re 40, but 2 = 0.8 and/= 0.2 for Be 40. There is recognizably a lack of experimental data on the wall-solid transfer coefficient Ows- The following correlation is sometimes used [61] a,s = 2.12(rjdp). [Pg.59]

The dependent variables in the fluid phase are made dimensionless by [Pg.59]

The reference values of concentration and temperature (4 and Tr ) may be chosen as the values at feed conditions. A scale for the reaction rate term evaluated at pellet surface conditions (a nonlinear function of both concentration and temperature, in general) is also introduced as follows [Pg.59]

The term for flux in the transverse direction is written with a shape factor S, given by [Pg.61]

For cylindrical coordinates, S=l, while for spherical coordinates, S = 2 and the axial component z should be ignored. For the case of the microslit fixed bed, S = 0. Note that dimensional variables are capped and the solid phase concentration (c ) and temperature (T ) are normalized by the same scales as in Eq. (3.16). In the governing equations at the particle level (discussed in detail in Section 3.3), the dimensionless spatial coordinate is [Pg.61]

Once the flowsheet structure has been defined, a simulation of the process can be carried out. A simulation is a mathematical model of the process which attempts to predict how the process would behave if it was constructed (see Fig. 1.1b). Having created a model of the process, we assume the flow rates, compositions, temperatures, and pressures of the feeds. The simulation model then predicts the flow rates, compositions, temperatures, and pressures of the products. It also allows the individual items of equipment in the process to be sized and predicts how much raw material is being used, how much energy is being consumed, etc. The performance of the design can then be evaluated. [Pg.1]

TTie calculation of partial fugacltles requires knowing the derivatives of thermodynamic quantities with respect to the compositions and to arrive at a mathematical model reflecting physical reality. [Pg.152]

The Supplement B (reference) contains a description of the process to render an automatic construction of mathematical models with the application of electronic computer. The research work of the Institute of the applied mathematics of The Academy of Sciences ( Ukraine) was assumed as a basis for the Supplement. The prepared mathematical model provides the possibility to spare strength and to save money, usually spent for the development of the mathematical models of each separate enterprise. The model provides the possibility to execute the works standard forms and records for the non-destructive inspection in complete correspondence with the requirements of the Standard. [Pg.26]

Lakestani, F., Validation of mathematical models of the ultrasonic inspection of steel components, PISC III report 6, IRC Inst. Adv. Mater., Petten, 1992. [Pg.162]

The idea of using mathematical modeling for describing materials behavior under loads is well known. Some physical phenomena, which can be observed in materials during testing, have time dependent quantitative characteristics. It gives a possibility to consider them as time series and use well developed models for their analysis [1, 2]. Usually applied... [Pg.187]

There is some uncertainty connected with testing techniques, errors of characteristic measurements, and influence of fectors that carmot be taken into account for building up a model. As these factors cannot be evaluated a priori and their combination can bring unpredictable influence on the testing results it is possible to represent them as additional noise action [4], Such an approach allows to describe the material and testing as a united model — dynamic mathematical model. [Pg.188]

The solution adopted by us is the use of computer simulations of mathematical models of the process and the mock-up situations. Eventually, simulation techniques will become so accurate, that the mock-up step can be discarded. For the time being it is reasonable to use such models to generate corrections for smaller differences between mock-up and process. [Pg.1056]

The classical microscopic description of molecular processes leads to a mathematical model in terms of Hamiltonian differential equations. In principle, the discretization of such systems permits a simulation of the dynamics. However, as will be worked out below in Section 2, both forward and backward numerical analysis restrict such simulations to only short time spans and to comparatively small discretization steps. Fortunately, most questions of chemical relevance just require the computation of averages of physical observables, of stable conformations or of conformational changes. The computation of averages is usually performed on a statistical physics basis. In the subsequent Section 3 we advocate a new computational approach on the basis of the mathematical theory of dynamical systems we directly solve a... [Pg.98]

Mathematical Model of the Nucleic Acids Conformational Transitions with Hysteresis over Hydration-Dehydration Cycle... [Pg.116]

We further discuss how quantities typically measured in the experiment (such as a rate constant) can be computed with the new formalism. The computations are based on stochastic path integral formulation [6]. Two different sources for stochasticity are considered. The first (A) is randomness that is part of the mathematical modeling and is built into the differential equations of motion (e.g. the Langevin equation, or Brownian dynamics). The second (B) is the uncertainty in the approximate numerical solution of the exact equations of motion. [Pg.264]

The difference between the two philosophies will become clearer as we continue (so we hope ). Nevertheless, it is useful to point out that a similar mathematical model is suggested for both conceptual approaches. [Pg.264]

An R-matrix has a series of interesting matheinatical properties that directly reflect chemical laws. Thus, the sum of all the entries in an R-matrix must be zero, as no electrons can be generated or annihilated in a chemical reaction. Furthermore, the sum of the entries in each row or column of an R-matrix must also he zero as long as there is not a change in formal charges on the corresponding atom. An elaborate mathematical model of the constitutional aspects of organic chemistry has been built on the basis of BE- and R-matriccs [17. ... [Pg.186]

The merit of the mathematical model [17] inherent in the BE- and R-matrices lies in the fact that it emphasized two essential points ... [Pg.186]

The model building step deals with the development of mathematical models to relate the optimized set of descriptors with the target property. Two statistical measures indicate the quality of a model, the regression coefficient, r, or its square, r, and the standard deviation, a (see Chapter 9). [Pg.490]

A series of monographs and correlation tables exist for the interpretation of vibrational spectra [52-55]. However, the relationship of frequency characteristics and structural features is rather complicated and the number of known correlations between IR spectra and structures is very large. In many cases, it is almost impossible to analyze a molecular structure without the aid of computational techniques. Existing approaches are mainly based on the interpretation of vibrational spectra by mathematical models, rule sets, and decision trees or fuzzy logic approaches. [Pg.529]

Non-Newtonian flow processes play a key role in many types of polymer engineering operations. Hence, formulation of mathematical models for these processes can be based on the equations of non-Newtonian fluid mechanics. The general equations of non-Newtonian fluid mechanics provide expressions in terms of velocity, pressure, stress, rate of strain and temperature in a flow domain. These equations are derived on the basis of physical laws and... [Pg.1]

The weighted residual method provides a flexible mathematical framework for the construction of a variety of numerical solution schemes for the differential equations arising in engineering problems. In particular, as is shown in the followmg section, its application in conjunction with the finite element discretizations yields powerful solution algorithms for field problems. To outline this technique we consider a steady-state boundary value problem represented by the following mathematical model... [Pg.41]

As already discussed, variations of a field unknown within a finite element is approximated by the shape functions. Therefore finite element discretization provides a nat ural method for the construction of piecewise approximations for the unknown functions in problems formulated in a global domain. This is readily ascertained considering the mathematical model represented by Equation (2.40). After the discretization of Q into a mesh of finite elements weighted residual statement of Equ tion (2.40), within the space of a finite element T3<, is written as... [Pg.42]

Nassehi, V. et ai, 1998. Development of a validated, predictive mathematical model for rubber mixing. Plast. Rubber Compos. 26, 103-112. [Pg.189]

John von Neuman, one of the greatest mathematicians of the twentieth century, believed that the sciences, in essence, do not try to explain, they hardly even try to interpret they mainly make models. By a model he meant a mathematical construct that, with the addition of certain verbal interpretations, describes observed phenomena. The justification of such a mathematical construct is solely and precisely that it is expected to work. Stephen Hawking also believes that physical theories are just mathematical models we construct and that it is meaningless to ask whether they correspond to reality, just as it is to ask whether they predict observations. [Pg.10]

Theoretical Models of the Response Surface Mathematical models for response surfaces are divided into two categories those based on theory and those that are empirical. Theoretical models are derived from known chemical and physical relationships between the response and the factors. In spectrophotometry, for example, Beer s law is a theoretical model relating a substance s absorbance. A, to its concentration, Ca... [Pg.675]

Another approach to optimizing a method is to develop a mathematical model of the response surface. Such models can be theoretical, in that they are derived from a known chemical and... [Pg.699]

The following texts and articles provide an excellent discussion of optimization methods based on searching algorithms and mathematical modeling, including a discussion of the relevant calculations. [Pg.704]

Submitting the main topic, we deal with models of solids with cracks. These models of mechanics and geophysics describe the stationary and quasi-stationary deformation of elastic and inelastic solid bodies having cracks and cuts. The corresponding mathematical models are reduced to boundary value problems for domains with singular boundaries. We shall use, if it is possible, a variational formulation of the problems to apply methods of convex analysis. It is of importance to note the significance of restrictions stated a priori at the crack surfaces. We assume that nonpenetration conditions of inequality type at the crack surfaces are fulfilled, which improves the accuracy of these models for contact problems. We also include the modelling of problems with friction between the crack surfaces. [Pg.1]

In this section we consider the boundary value problem for model equations of a thermoelastic plate with a vertical crack (see Khludnev, 1996d). The unknown functions in the mathematical model under consideration are such quantities as the temperature 9 and the horizontal and vertical displacements W = (w, w ), w of the mid-surface points of the plate. We use the so-called coupled model of thermoelasticity, which implies in particular that we need to solve simultaneously the equations that describe heat conduction and the deformation of the plate. The presence of the crack leads to the fact that the domain of a solution has a nonsmooth boundary. As before, the main feature of the problem as a whole is the existence of a constraint in the form of an inequality imposed on the crack faces. This constraint provides a mutual nonpenetration of the crack faces ... [Pg.198]

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