It should be noted that non-flux conditions are prescribed here for both concentrations and potential at the electrodes, as any production or consumption of species and charge has been included in source terms in the foregoing-derived governing equations. [Pg.282]

The boundary conditions are specified by the microscopic model of the various interfaces included within the photoelectrochemical cell. A metal-semiconductor interface, for example, can be described in a manner similar to that presented in the preceding section. Consider a semiconducting electrode bounded at one end by the electrolyte and at the other end by a metallic current collector. The boundary conditions at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface are incorporated into the model of the interface. Appropriate boundary conditions at the semiconductor-current collector interface are that the potential is zero, the potential derivative is equal to a constant, determined by the charge assumed to be located at the semiconductor-current collector interface, and all the current is carried by electrons (the flux of holes is zero). These conditions are consistent with a selective ohmic contact.34 The boundary conditions in the electrolytic solution may be set a fixed distance from [Pg.82]

It is common to treat the semiconductor-electrolyte interface in terms of charge and current density boundary conditions. The total charge held within the electrolytic solution and the interfacial states, which balances the charge held in the semiconductor, is assumed to be constant. This provides a derivative boundary condition for the potential at the interface. The fluxes of electrons and holes are constrained by kinetic expressions at the interface. The assumption that the charge is constant in the space charge region is valid in the absence of kinetic and mass-transfer limitations to the electrochemical reactions. Treatment of the influence of kinetic or mass transfer limitations requires solution of the equations governing the coupled phenomena associated with the semiconductor, the electrolyte, and the semiconductor-electrolyte interface. [Pg.83]

In the region sufficiently far from the interface that electroneutrality holds and under the assumptions that the concentration is uniform and that the solution adjacent to the electrodes may be treated as equipotential surfaces, the potential distribution can be obtained through solution of Laplace s equation, V2 = 0, and is a function of current density. The potential drop in the region between the counterelectrode and the outer limit of the diffusion layer is given by [Pg.83]

The potential drop across the counterelectrode-electrolyte interface is given by [Pg.84]

The remaining three conditions are found using a similar procedure to the other Maxwell equations. K(x) is the surface current density. [Pg.17]

The most common boimdary conditions are presented in Table 11-1. [Pg.692]

That is, because the diffusivity is finite, the only way the flux can be zero is if the concentration gradient is zero. [Pg.692]

Planes of symmetry. When the concentration profile is symmetrical about a plane, the concentration gradient is zero in that plane of symmetry. For example, in the case of radial diffusion in a pipe, at the center of the pipe [Pg.692]

In developing mathematieal models for ehemieally reaeting systems in which diffusional effects are important, the first steps are [Pg.692]

Step I Perform a differential mole balance on a particular species A. Step 2 Substitute for F/ in terms of [Pg.692]

At each edge of the simulation space, a boundary condition must be supplied. The common ones are as follows. [Pg.94]

No flux (Neumann boundary) Used where there is a physical barrier to mass transport (such as the wall of the cell) or downstream of a [Pg.94]

Bulk concentration (Dirichlet boundary) Used to represent edges of the simulation space where the solution has not been perturbed by electrolysis or incoming solution in a hydrodynamic cell. [Pg.95]

Nernst or Butler-Volmer equation (Neumann boundary) Used to define the concentration ratio at the electrode surface when electrolysis is not transport limited. [Pg.95]

For any model a set of boundary conditions is derived from the physical aspects of the model and these boundary conditions are then transformed into mathematical equations to solve the model. The boundary conditions for this model are [Pg.10]

These boundary conditions come from the physics of the column. Here z is the axial coordinate along the column axis, while 3 is the azimuthal angle. At the inlet of the column (2=0), the feed is introduced over an angle, flf. From the beginning of the feed introduction to the feed angle we have the mobile phase concentration as the feed concentration. At z = oo there is no solute in the mobile phase as aU the solute has eluted at the column length L. The stationary phase boundary conditions are [Pg.10]

These boundary conditions are in spherical coordinate for the spherical particles. The first condition corresponds to symmetry at the center of die pore. The second condition corresponds to the mass transfer at the interface between mobile and stationary phase. [Pg.11]

Assume that a no-slip condition of velocity at the solid wall boundary is valid. We have [Pg.179]

The boundary condition of temperature may be in one of the three following forms (1) Given temperature distribution [Pg.179]

For the rate of turbulent energy dissipation near the wall, from Eq. (5.72) we have [Pg.180]

In order to give an approximation of the velocity gradient near the wall, an empirical equation, known as the wall function, is introduced. The wall function is expressed as [Pg.180]

It is noted that turbulence may also affect the boundary conditions of velocity and heat flux near the wall. A detailed discussion using the k-c model for these boundary conditions is given by Launder and Spalding (1974). [Pg.180]

An alternative approach is to employ stochastic boundary conditions where the finite molecular system employed in the simulation is not duplicated, but rather, a boundary force is applied to interact with atoms of the sys-tem. 2-67 Yhe boundary force is chosen to mimic the bulk solvent regions that have been neglected. However, a difficulty with the use of this method is due to the ambiguity associated with the definition and parameterization of the boundary forces. Thus, there is sometimes the impression that the method is not rigorous. Recently, Beglov and Roux provided a formal definition and suggested a useful implementation of the boundary forces. Their results are very promising. [Pg.128]

Any of the methods used in classical Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations may be borrowed in the combined QM/MM approach. However, the use of a finite system in condensed phase simulations is always a severe approximation, even when appropriate periodic or stochastic boundary conditions are employed. A further complication is the use of potential function truncation schemes, particular in ionic aqueous solutions where the long-range Coulombic interactions are significant beyond the cutoff distance.Thus, it is alluring to embed a continuum reaction field model in the quantum mechanical calculations in addition to the explicit solute—solvent interaaions to include the dielectric effect beyond the cutoff distance. - uch an onion shell arrangement has been used in spherical systems, whereas Lee and Warshel introduced an innovative local reaction field method for evaluation of long- [Pg.128]

The system (8-42) should be completed with appropriate equations resulting from the boundary conditions and it can be solved, in principle, by the same factorization method of Crout for systems with tri-diagonal matrix. [Pg.231]

When the diffusion coefficient depends not only on the spatial coordinate but also on the local concentration, the discretization of the diffusion equation proceeds in a similar manner, except that one has to solve at each time step not a system of linear equations, but a quite complicated set of coupled non-linear equations. [Pg.231]

In the treatment of explicit and implicit difference methods, we have used Dirichlet type boundary conditions, for the sake of simplicity, which specify the values of the solution on the boundaries. A more general type of boundary condition can be defined in the form of a linear combination of the solution and its derivative. Considering in particular the left boundary, such a mixed boundary condition can be written [Pg.231]

For (3 = 0 this is a Dirichlet type condition, while for a = 0 it is a Neumann type condition, a, (3, and y may, eventually, be functions of time. A practical example for a mixed boundary condition is the evaporation condition [Pg.231]

The simplest finite-difference representation of the mixed boundary condition (8-44) may be readily obtained by considering for the spatial derivative the forward- [Pg.231]

When we design and manage a company s SHE information system, we have to consider a number of boundary conditions. These are conditions both inside and outside the company that we do not have immediate control of. They represent opportunities and threats to our ambitions in accomplishing efficient solutions. [Pg.11]

At all impermeable solid surfaces, a no-slip condition, that is, a zero velocity boundary condition, is assumed. Boundary conditions at the interface of the fluid flow channel and porous media are given on the basis of the assumption of continuity in the solutions of pressure and normal component velocity for the two adjacent regions. [Pg.226]

For Brinkman s equation, additional boundary condition is given in terms of continuity in shear stress as [Pg.226]

This chapter will examine a few related eyewitness testimonies for a determination of the chemical, physical, and technical boundary conditions of the alleged homicidal gassings. A complete and detailed analysis of the many eyewitness testimonies in the individual trials and [Pg.196]

428 Unheated cellar rooms by their very nature, have very high relative atmospheric humidity. As a result of the large numbers of human beings crammed into the cellar, the atmospheric humidity would certainly approach 100%, resulting in the condensation of water on cold objects. [Pg.196]

For a clarification of the evidence problems, an extract from the judgment of the Frankfurt Auschwitz Trial may be quoted here 83 [Pg.197]

The general findings [...] are based on [...] the credible testimony of witnesses [...] Bock, in addition to the written notes of the first camp [Pg.197]

In the opinion of the court, many of the witness testimonies possessed insufficient credibility. But it nevertheless succeeded in obtaining testimonies from a few allegedly credible witnesses that sounded sufficiently credible to the court. [Pg.197]

To obtain a unique solution of the resulting system of coupled partial difierential equations (Eqs. (5.6), (5.7), (5.12) and (5.16)), boundary conditions are needed at the borders of the model domain (Fig. 5.11). [Pg.119]

The boundary conditions apphed to the momentum, thermal energy and component mass-balance equations are given in Table 5.3. [Pg.119]

Boundary (Fig. 5.11) Component mass balance Momentum balance Energy balance [Pg.120]

With the superficial velocity of the fluid in the membrane, Mm, the following simple Dirichlet boundary conditions can be defined on boundary IV for the [Pg.120]

However, this simplification can not be applied without restrictions. Depending on operation parameters, mixture composition and membrane properties it may be necessary to treat the boundary condition at the membrane in a different manner. In the most general case the balance equations have to be solved simultaneously not only for the tube side but also for the membrane and for the shell side, corresponding to an extended model domain illustrated in Fig. 5.12. [Pg.120]

The Sehrddinger equation is a differential equation. In order to obtain a special solution to such equations, one has to insert the particular boundary conditions to be fulfilled. Such conditions follow from the physics of the problem, i.e. with which kind of experiment are we going to compare the theoretical results For example [Pg.73]

There is a countable number of bound states. Each state corresponds to eigenvalue E. [Pg.73]

At any point in space the function has to have a single value. This plays a role only if we have an angular variable, say j . Then, / and j +2tt have to give the same value of the wave function. We will encounter this problem in the solution for the rigid rotator. [Pg.73]

Equally as important as formulating the differential equation(s) when developing a mathematical model is the selection of an appropriate set of boundary conditions and/or initial conditions. In order to calculate the values of arbitrary constants that evolve in the solution of a differential equation, we generally need a set of n boundary conditions for each nth-order derivative with respect to a space variable or with respect to time. For example, the differential equation [Pg.26]

Appropriate boundary conditions arise from the actual process or the problem statement. They essentially are given, or, more often, must be deduced from, physical principles associated with the problem. These physical principles are usually mathematical statements that show that the dependent variable at the boundary is at equilibrium, or, if some transport is taking place, that the flux is conserved at the boimdary. Another type of boundary condition uses interfacial transport coefficients (e g. heat Iransfer or mass transfer coefficients) that express the flux as the product of the interphase transport coefficient and some kind of driving force. [Pg.26]

The coimnon boundary conditions for use with momentum, energy, and mass transport are tabulated in Tables 3.2-3.4. Note the similarities among the three modes of transport. These boundary conditions apply to all strata of description shown in Tables 3.2, except for the molecular one. [Pg.26]

Recall the mathematical classification of boundary conditions summarized in Table 3.5. For example, in energy transport, the first type corresponds to the specified temperature at the boundary the second type corresponds to the specified heat flux at the boundary and the third type corresponds to the interfacial heat transport governed by a heat transfer coefficient. [Pg.26]

Concentration at a boundary is specified Mass flux across a boundary is continuous Concentrations on both sides of a boundary are related functionally [Pg.27]

The suitability of a potential borrow area depends on more aspects than the quality, quantity and dredgeability of the fill material. Other important boundary conditions include [Pg.111]

Special investigations, surveys and studies may be required to identify such conditions. Consideration of all aspects could result in the need to use another borrow area containing a lesser quality fill material or may even require an adjustment of the initial design of the land reclamation and its superstructures. [Pg.111]

Placement of fill material using a discharge pipeline [Pg.114]

6 Fill mass properties related to method of placement [Pg.114]

Use of cohesive fine grained material assessment Settling ponds [Pg.114]

Let a solid body occupy a domain fl c with the smooth boundary L. The deformation of the solid inside fl is described by equilibrium, constitutive and geometrical equations discussed in Sections 1.1.1-1.1.5. To formulate the boundary value problem we need boundary conditions at T. The principal types of boundary conditions are considered in this subsection. [Pg.16]

The following restriction imposed upon the boundary displacements u = [Pg.16]

Let n = (ni,n2,n3) be a unit outer normal vector at L. The restriction imposed upon the boundary stresses by [Pg.16]

We now assume a validity of the unilateral boundary constraints provided that the nonpenetration of the boundary points over the given obstacle takes place, namely [Pg.16]

Here is a normal component of the boundary displacements vector u defined by the decomposition [Pg.16]

Since the mathematical model is a system of PDFs and ODEs with time and spatial coordinates as independent variables, it is necessary to define the following initial and boundary conditions for the gas, liquid, and solid phases for cocurrent operation mode [Pg.245]

When a high-purity hydrogen stream without gas recycle is used, such as in the case of laboratory reactor, or when the recycle gas has been subject to purification process in commercial HDT units, the values of partial pressures (pf) and liquid [Pg.246]

The values of parameters a, b, A , B , and tu have to be determined for each particular problem, by considering that the general solution 2.22 must satisfy the initial and boundary conditions of the problem. [Pg.25]

The temperature throughout the solid must be known at the instant taken at the outset t = 0. This initial condition of temperature is expressed as follows [Pg.25]

Various surface conditions may arise, depending on the nature of the atmosphere surrounding the heated material, rubber, or mold. [Pg.25]

This case is very extreme from a practical point of view, as perfect insulators do not exist. Nevertheless, from a theoretical point of view, the problem can be considered as it leads generally to easier solutions. It is written as follows [Pg.25]

This is the other extreme case, after the previous one obtained without heat transfer. Even though it is often used for the mathematical treatment leading to simple equations, it is practically unrealistic. Theoretically speaking, this condition needs such a perfect contact with the heating source that an infinite coefficient of heat transfer should be at the interface. It is written as [Pg.26]

The Nahme number is a measure of viscous dissipation effects compared to conduction hence, it is an indicator of coupling of the energy and momentum equations. For values of Na 0.1-0.5 (depending on geometry and thermal boundary conditions), the viscous dissipation leads to considerable coupling of the conservation equations, and a nonisothermal analysis is necessary. [Pg.138]

The relative importance of heat transfer mode at the boundaries is expressed in terms of the dimensionless Biot number deflned by [Pg.138]

For engineering calculations, the specific heat flux q is often described by the Nusselt number [Pg.138]

The solution of the conservation Eqs. (4.1—4.3) and constitutive Eq. (4.4) (or Eq. (4.12)) is possible only after a set of boundary conditions has been imposed on the flow domain. Boundary conditions for flow analysis are highly dependent on the problem at hand, and as such they defy a complete description for all polymer processing apphcations. However, a rough guide encompassing most of the types of boundary conditions used in the past follows. [Pg.138]

For steady-state problems, the set of equations is elliptic for viscous flows and elliptic-hyperbolic for viscoelastic flows. Elliptic problems have boundary conditions everywhere in the perimeter of the domain, while in hyperbolic problems boundary conditions are more difficult to determine and may need some degree of trial [Pg.138]

Once the significant components of the system have been chosen, a computational domain is then defined to enclose them. The geometry of the simulation box must define a volume that realistically encloses the physics of the system, with boundary conditions mimicking the effects of the larger, real system being modeled. Within the ion channel framework, only a small fraction of the cellular lipid membrane is simulated thus, the dimension of the computational domain is minimized to reduce the computational burden. Consequently, the boundary conditions must be chosen carefully so that unwanted computational artifacts are not introduced into the simulation results. [Pg.261]

The use of nonperiodic boundary conditions is also complicated, especially by the necessity for having a mechanism that effectively and realistically recirculates mobile components (ions and sometimes water molecules) that escape from the computational domain. The injection scheme is trivial in periodic systems, but it is not at all obvious for nonperiodic systems. [Pg.262]

A third approach is to inject particles based on a grand canonical ensemble distribution. At each predetermined molecular dynamics time step, the probability to create or destroy a particle is calculated and a random number is used to determine whether the update is accepted (the probability for both the creation and the destruction of a particle must be equal to ensure reversibility). The probability function depends on the excess chemical potential and must be calculated in a way that is consistent with the microscopic model used to describe the system. In the work of Im et al., a primitive water model is used, and the chemical potential is determined through an analytic solution to the Ornstein-Zernike equation using the hypemetted chain as a closure relation. This method is very accurate from the physical viewpoint, but it has a poorer CPU performance compared with simpler schemes based on [Pg.262]

The physical processes in the gas-phase and subsurface regions must be matched at the interface by requiring continuities of mass and energy fluxes. This procedure eventually determines propellant surface conditions and burning rate as the eigenvalues of the problem. The interfacial boundary conditions are expressed as follows [Pg.313]

The far-field conditions for the gas phase require the gradients of flow properties to be zero at jc - , [Pg.313]

Finally, the conditions for the phase transition from solid to liquid at the melting point (T, = 478 K) are required. [Pg.314]

The above solution of the equations of motion for a given value of the wavenumber a contains several unknown constants D, Dj, D, D, (5, (5, and Pg (the constants 6 and can be incorporated into the constants Z), when the overall expressions for and are written in accordance with Equations 5.11 and 5.13). Suitable boundary conditions along the wavy intaface and the initial condition must be used to determine these constants. It is through these conditions that interfadal properties snch as interfacial tension enter the analysis. [Pg.253]

Some boundary conditions are basically requirranents that quantities such as overall mass, momentum, energy, and electrical charge be conserved. We shall derive expressions for the first two of these in this chapter, although in forms more general than required for solution of the simple problem of superposed fluids considered in the preceding section. Other conservation equations, including individual component material balances, are treated in the following chapter which deals with transport processes. [Pg.253]

We then subtract the following expressions which would apply if the regions below and above S were occupied by bulk phases A and B, respectively [Pg.253]

Note that use of these equations imphes that even in the nonequihbrium situation, a method ean be found for extrapolating the bulk phase densities and velocities into the interfacial region. In many situations of interest, this extrapolation presents no difliculties. [Pg.254]

If we make the same small curvature approximation as in Chapter 1, the second integral in Eqnation 5.30 becomes [Pg.254]

At the interface of dilferent homogeneous domains, the values of the jaarameters e, fi and (T may undergo step-like variations. In this case, according to formulae (8.6) and (8.7), some field vectors are also bound to change abruptly. To solve problems in electrodynamics, it is necessary, therefore, to formulate the boundary conditions - that is the relations between the vectors of the field at two adjacent points on the different sides of the interface of media with different electromagnetic properties. [Pg.203]

We will formulate the boundary conditions for practical applications of critical importance, namely those in which a smooth surface separates two media, 1 and 2, whose parameters are either constant or vary from point to point very slowly, so that in a small neighborhood of any point on the interface, the interface can be regarded as plane and the medium parameters can be constant. The derivation of these boundary conditions can be found in the textbooks on electromagnetic theory (see, for example, Stratton, 1941 Zhdanov and Keller, 1994 Kong, 2000). [Pg.203]

Let n denote the unit vector normal to the surface S at a given point. We also assume that no extraneous current or charges arc present at the interface S. Then the following relations hold good [Pg.203]

The surface current density j is nonzero only at the surface of a perfect conductor hence for real media, (8.20) and (8.21) can be cast in the form [Pg.204]

By virtue of the linearity of the Maxwell s equations, a field varying arbitrarily in time can be represented as a sum of harmonic fields whose time dependence is expressed by the factor exp(-iwt). For a monochromatic field, equations (8.1) through (8.4) take the form [Pg.204]

When the distance between each A reactant is very large compared with that between each pair of B reactants, at a point about midway between a pair of A reactants, the concentration of B reactants is unlikely to be significantly affected by the presence of the A reactants. Smoluchowski suggested that such B reactants are effectively an infinite distance from the A reactants under discussion. By effectively an infinite distance is meant perhaps 1000 times the molecular diameter or encounter distance R. In this region, the concentration of B reactants at any time during the reaction is very close to the initial concentration, i.e. [B](1000iZ) [B]0 for all time (t 0). From the definition of the density distribution, eqn. (2), this boundary condition as r - °° is [Pg.11]

The weakness of this boundary condition is being able to justify a large enough distance to be comparable with an infinite distance, or perhaps 1000R. In practice, this would require B to be in excess over A by about 109 times A more reasonable approach to this outer boundary condition would be to require that there be no loss or gain of matter over this boundary, as there is an approximately equal tendency for the B reactants to migrate towards either A reactant upon each side of the boundary. The proper incorporation of this type of boundary condition into the Smoluchowski model leads to the mean field theory of Felderhof and Deutch [25] and is discussed further in Chap. 8 Sect. 2.3 and Chap. 9 Sect 5. [Pg.11]

Because reaction between A and B has been presumed to be effectively instantaneous compared with the rate of migration of the reactants, there is no probability of observing A and B when they are close enough to react. Smoluchowski suggested that at a separation distance, r, between A and B equal to the encounter distance, R, the reactants very rapidly react to form products. When A and B are separated by distances larger than this, no bonds can be formed or broken, nor can any energy or an electron be transferred. It is only when the separation distance is equal to the encounter distance that reaction does occur (and the encounter [Pg.11]

This is the inner boundary condition. It has two serious flaws. The reaction between A and B may not occur at a rate very much faster than the reactants can approach one another. As was discussed in Sect. 3.1, this can lead to an appreciable probability of formation of the species (AB), which can be better described as an encounter pair. This difficulty was neatly handled by Collins and Kimball [4] and is discussed in Sect. 4 and Chap. 8 Sect. 2.4. The other flaw is the specification of one definite distance at which reaction occurs, the encounter distance. Even if the reaction proceeds with similar rates when the separation distance varies by 0.1nm (the largest likely variation of bond distance), this will be a small variation compared with the encounter distance, which is typically 0.5nm. Means to circumvent this difficulty are discussed in Chap. 8 Sect. 2.4 and Chap. 9 Sect. 4. [Pg.12]

In practice one can only handle rather small samples. Experiments are usually carried out on systems of fewer than 1000 particles, sometimes on as few as 32 One has therefore to examine whether it is possible, using such small samples, to obtain any information relevant to macroscopic thermodynamic situations. Some skepticism on this score has occasionally been expressed by disappointed theoreticians Several different problems are involved. [Pg.150]

It is possible to use alternative formulations considering mole fractions rather than mass fractions. For most cases, mass fraction formulations will be adequate. An estimation of the diffusion coefficient (of component k) in a multicomponent mixture Dkm) however, is not straightforward. For mixtures of ideal gases, the diffusion coefficient in a mixture can be estimated as (Hines and Maddox, 1985) [Pg.45]

TABLE 2.3 Transport Properties (Most of the data are from Reid et al. (1987) and Perry s Handbook (1997)) [Pg.46]

This equation can be classified on the basis of eigenvalues. A, of a matrix with entries Ajk (Fletcher, 1991). The eigenvalues (A) are roots of the following equation [Pg.47]

For any model representing a flow process, the inlet boundary is a boundary through which the surrounding environment communicates with the solution domain. Generally, at such inlet boundaries, information about the velocity (or pressure), temperature and composition of the incoming fluid stream is assumed to be known. When the velocity components at the inlet are known, the inlet boundary conditions simply become [Pg.47]

When velocity components at the inlet boundary are not known, it is necessary to specify the pressure at the inlet boundary. Simplified equations can then be used (such as Bernoulli s equation) to calculate velocity at the inlet boundary (Fig. 2.3). For incompressible flow, if the specified total pressure at the inlet boundary is pq, the [Pg.48]

A similar treatment of the case of first-order reaction gives dc/dt + U(dcldz) + (djldz) + kc - 0 [Pg.13]

It is possible to combine the two equations in one hyperbolic second-order PDE. This has the property of finite wave speed, both boundary conditions at the entrance are easily calculable, and it accounts for some of the phenomena of unmixing. This is not the place to treat this model in detail and, indeed, it is still finding fruitful applications.5 Another method for a hyperbolic model is to be found in [173]. [Pg.13]

When Amundson taught the graduate course in mathematics for chemical engineering, he always insisted that all boundary conditions arise from nature. He meant, I think, that a lot of simplification and imagination goes into the model itself, but the boundary conditions have to mirror the links between the system and its environment very faithfully. Thus if we have no doubt that the feed does get into the reactor, then we must have a condition that ensures this in the model. We probably do not wish to model the hydrodynamics of the entrance region, but the inlet must be an inlet. One merit of the wave model we have looked at briefly is that both boundary conditions apply to the inlet. [Pg.13]

This operation thus consists of four parts scale particle coordinates, compute scaled interparticle distances, perform minimum imaging, and unscale the interparticle distances. This procedure is performed inside the subroutine to compute the forces on each particle as described in the following code [Pg.356]

during dynamics, the particles could leave the central box. At equilibrium, it is not necessary for the particles to be brought back into the central box. However, when this must be done, the PBC procedure, which is similar to minimum imaging, can be performed. In this procedure, the particle coordinates q,- are converted to scaled coordinates s,-. These are then brought into the ntral cubic box by means of the dnint operation, and then unsealed using h to give back q, in the central cell. Because unshifted particle coordinates along the trajectory are often required (to calculate, e.g., mean-squared displacements), it is not necessary to perform PBC under equilibrium conditions. [Pg.356]

the essential philosophy of removing surfaces is to maintain continuity of the particle coordinates and momenta across boundaries. Although the particle coordinates can be in any image box, the size and shape of the central box are always taken into account in the computation of interparticle distances. Thus, in a molecular dynamics simulation, the density of the sample is determined only by the minimum imaging procedure. [Pg.356]

To construct the condition for minimum imaging for systems under an external field, let us reexamine the GSLLOD equations of motion (Eqs. [134]) without thermostats [Pg.357]

The coordinates q] and momenta pj of the image particles can be written as follows [Pg.357]

We have still to examine the apparently innocuous requirement that y/ E The trial functions of nonrelativistic quantum chemistry usually take the choice of for granted, but the more complicated structure of Dirac spinors requires closer scrutiny. It is the failure to realize that the variational procedure will not, of itself, yield precisely the correct relations between the spinor components that is at the root of the pathologies listed in papers like [38-43,45]. [Pg.150]

The structure and symmetry of (113) has major implications for the construction and properties of the submatrices. The appearance of both angular functions p) in (113) is clearly an essential feature of spherical 4-spinors, [Pg.150]

We have still to examine the coupling of upper and lower radial components. This is particularly relevant near the nucleus, where the classical electron would [Pg.150]

Suppose that Z(r) is given by (105), and that u(r) has a Frobenius type power series expansion about r = 0 of the form [Pg.151]

The two choices 7 correspond to independent solutions, only one of which is usually in the required domain of the Hamiltonian. In the Schrbdinger case the two leading exponents 7 would be replaced by / +1 and —1. We require that the probability density D r) should be integrable in the neighbourhood of r = 0 so that, for some positive R, [Pg.151]

In this region, the concentration of B reactants at any time during the reaction is very close to the initial concentration, i.e. [B](1000i2) [B]q for all time t 0). From the definition of the density distribution, eqn. [Pg.11]

At resonance, X = 0, Z = R, and 3 = 0. The inductive and capacitive reactances exactly cancel so that the impedance reduces to a pure resistance. Thus, the current is maximized and oscillates in phase with the voltage. In a circuit designed to detect electromagnetic waves (e.g., radio or TV signals) of a given frequency, the inductance and capacitance are tuned to satisfy the appropriate resonance condition. [Pg.149]

the boundary conditions imposed on a differential equation determine significant aspects of its solutions. We consider two examples involving the one-dimensional Schrodinger equation in quantum mechanics [Pg.149]

It will turn out that boundary conditions determine the values of E, the allowed energy levels for a quantum system. A particle in a box is a hypothetical system with a potential energy given by [Pg.149]

Because of the infinite potential energy, the wavefunction (x) = 0 outside the box, where x 0 or x a. This provides two boundary conditions [Pg.149]

We can not just set A = 0 because that would inply V (x) = 0 everywhere. Recall, however, that the sine function periodically goes through 0, when its [Pg.150]

Equation (2.10) is an example of a parabolic second-order partial differential equation. The equation describes a single property, concentration, which evolves in space and time. In order to solve an equation of this type, we need to know the condition of the system at some starting time, f = 0. We have already stated that at the start of the experiment, the concentration of species A is a fixed value (1 mM for example) and is uniform everjrwhere. We call this the bulk concentration of species A and represent it with the symbol Ca. Therefore we have the initial condition [Pg.32]

A similar condition applies to species B, except that initially we are going to assume that there is no B present, so Cg = 0. At times t 0, the evolution of the system is given by Pick s second law (Eq. (2.10)). [Pg.32]

As it stands, our system is not very interesting it is infinite in extent and as the concentration of both species is initially uniform, there are no concentration gradients and hence no diffusion, so the system will be unchanging in time. In order to solve a particular electrochemical problem, we must impose some spatial boundary conditions on the concentration. Our one-dimensional space has two spatial boundaries we therefore constrain the system to some finite region [Pg.32]

The first boundary is the surface of the macrodisc electrode, which we define to be at x = 0. When a potential difference is applied across the electrode, electron transfer occurs, transforming species A at the surface into species B. Therefore, the concentrations at the electrode surface vary as a function, /, of the potential, E, applied to the electrode. In general, we can write [Pg.33]

For a simple cyclic voltammetry experiment with Nernstian equilibrium at the electrode surface, this function is given by Eq. (2.7). For other experimental techniques, different potential-dependent boundary conditions may be used. [Pg.33]

It is now well accepted that Newtonian liquids adhere to solid surfaces as pointed out by Goldstein [G9], It was a very controversial subject as late as the 1840s, as may be seen by reading the writings of Stokes [S22-24] in this period. [Pg.269]

Ahn and White [Al] have shown that carbooxylic acids and amides induce slip in polyethylene and polypropylene melts presumably by exuding to the surface and forming a low viscosity layer. This was also found to be the case with carbon black compounds, but the situation with compounds containing polar particles was more complex. [Pg.270]

Brzoskowski et al. [B30, B33, B35] at the University of Akron have described experiments involving extrusion through dies made out of porous metal. When air pressures are at a level of 0.2 MPa, there is an enormous decrease in pressure gradient along the die axis. Such decreases can be more [Pg.270]

FIGURE 9 Effect of pressure level on torque in biconical rheometer. [Pg.271]

FIGURE 10 Influence of pressure history on torque history in a rotational rheometer. [Pg.272]

In the application of such a model to the rotary kiln, it must be pointed out that, as a result of jetsam segregation, the values for M/N, E, and are susceptible to changes because of rearrangement of the particle ensemble. Nevertheless, it is possible to alter these constants dynamically with respect to both time and space (e.g., for each kiln revolution or material turnover in the cross section). With the altered values of the constants the solid fraction for the segregated core may be computed with the following relationship (Savage, 1988) [Pg.113]

It should be recalled that, although a constant value of the solids concentration had been employed in the granular flow model. Equation (5.16) provides a means of determining changes in void fraction [Pg.113]

Hence the capacity increases by the factor (1 + x) compared with the situation in vacuum (1+x) is often designed the dielectric constants. Similarly we can show that the electric field at a distance r from a point charge in a uniform dielectric in equation 2.5 and the Coulomb force in equation 2.6 are each divided by a factor e. [Pg.27]

At this point we have a mathematical structure that describes fields in bulk matter. A complementary description of conditions prevailing at interfaces between two materials can be derived by applying the same balance equations to a disc-shaped volume of area wa and height h in each material and to a simple closed curve of height h in each material and side S. Using the divergence theorem and the disc-shaped volume with equation 2.1, we have in the limit as A -+ 0 [Pg.27]

Here stands for the free charge beyond that due to polarization, i.e., charge positioned at the interface by means other than polarization. Thus for linear dielectrics [Pg.28]

If only one of the materials is a conductor a current normal to the surface must be zero so the corresponding electrostatic field vanishes. [Pg.28]

Energy dissipation due to the bubble slip is generally expressed as [Pg.329]

Equations (9.69) and (9.70) mathematically describe the mixing under consideration. The two unknowns and 17lp are determined based on the process parameters. [Pg.329]

Since the ladles are usually cylindrical, the governing equations are generally solved for half of the system due to the symmetry at the axis. Initially fluid in the bath is assumed to be at rest and has a uniform temperature, which can be mathematically expressed as [Pg.329]

Bernard et al. [73] assigned small initial values for k and e to set the initial eddy viscosity roughly equal to the molecular viscosity of water (10 m /s). [Pg.329]

There is no flux across the symmetry plane such that [Pg.329]

Since (V-B) is zero [Eq. (1.1.4)] the integrals in Eq. (1.5.1) must also be zero. The right side may be expressed by [Pg.15]

Let 8h become very small the contribution from the circumferential area diminishes. Since the areas 8A and 5Ao are equal [Pg.15]

At the interface the normal components of the induction are identical in both media [Pg.15]

The behavior of the component of D normal to the boundary may be treated similarly, except that the integrals are not necessarily zero. In this case the charge density p must be taken into account. In the transition from the volume element to the surface element, the volume density becomes a surface density, Psurf, given by [Pg.15]

In the presence of a surface charge the normal component of the electric displacement changes abruptly. In the absence of a surface charge, D is continuous across the boundary. [Pg.15]

In some cases, the temperature of the system may be larger than the critical temperature of one (or more) of the components, i.e., system temperature T may exceed T. . In that event, component i is a supercritical component, one that cannot exist as a pure liquid at temperature T. For this component, it is still possible to use symmetric normalization of the activity coefficient (y - 1 as x - 1) provided that some method of extrapolation is used to evaluate the standard-state fugacity which, in this case, is the fugacity of pure liquid i at system temperature T. For highly supercritical components (T Tj,.), such extrapolation is extremely arbitrary as a result, we have no assurance that when experimental data are reduced, the activity coefficient tends to obey the necessary boundary condition 1... [Pg.58]

At first, in order to use some standard results from the theory of the Radon transform, we restrict the analysis to 2-D tensor fields whose elements belong to either the space of rapidly decreasing C° functions or the space of compactly supported C°° functions. Thus, some of the detailed issues associated with the boundary conditions are avoided. [Pg.132]

Finally, we write the boundary conditions in terms of the stress functions... [Pg.137]

The axial stress is the only stress component which can be determined directly from measurement data. Hence, we have the boundary-value problem with equations (27), (29)-(31) and the boundary conditions (34)-(36). [Pg.137]

Thus, the harmonic function >P(2 ,y) is a function of two variables which can be determined from the boundary conditions. This follows also from the fact that If the distribution of is described only by harmonic functions, the other stress components do not develop in cylinders [2]. [Pg.138]

By using the method of the dyadic Green s function [4] and the adequate boundary conditions [5], the expressions of the electric field in the zone where the transducer is placed can be written as [2]... [Pg.374]

Depending on the boundary conditions, the optimal technology to decrease the silver in the rinsing water, may either be electrolytic desilvering or cascade fixation. [Pg.609]

One has to solve this equation in the range R < r < Rj. The boundary conditions connect the pressure pi in the liquid film on the boundaries of two menisci with the pressures of the liquid in corresponding columns bounded by these menisci. [Pg.617]

Equations II-12 and 11-13 illustrate that the shape of a liquid surface obeying the Young-Laplace equation with a body force is governed by differential equations requiring boundary conditions. It is through these boundary conditions describing the interaction between the liquid and solid wall that the contact angle enters. [Pg.13]

The mathematical theory is rather complex because it involves subjecting the basic equations of motion to the special boundary conditions of a surface that may possess viscoelasticity. An element of fluid can generally be held to satisfy two kinds of conservation equations. First, by conservation of mass. [Pg.121]

These expressions are inserted in the conservation equations, and the boundary conditions provide a set of relationships defining the U and V coefficients [125-129]. [Pg.122]

Integration of Eq. V-11 with the new boundary conditions and combination with Eq. V-27 gives... [Pg.181]

The equations are transcendental for the general case, and their solution has been discussed in several contexts [32-35]. One important issue is the treatment of the boundary condition at the surface as d is changed. Traditionally, the constant surface potential condition is used where po is constant however, it is equally plausible that ag is constant due to the behavior of charged sites on the surface. [Pg.181]

There is evidently a grave problem here. The wavefiinction proposed above for the lithium atom contains all of the particle coordinates, adheres to the boundary conditions (it decays to zero when the particles are removed to infinity) and obeys the restrictions = P23

For many-electron systems such as atoms and molecules, it is obviously important that approximate wavefiinctions obey the same boundary conditions and symmetry properties as the exact solutions. Therefore, they should be antisynnnetric with respect to interchange of each pair of electrons. Such states can always be constmcted as linear combinations of products such as... [Pg.31]

Periodic boundary conditions force k to be a discrete variable with allowed values occurring at intervals of lull. For very large systems, one can describe the system as continuous in the limit of i qo. Electron states can be defined by a density of states defmed as follows ... [Pg.93]

The alternative simulation approaches are based on molecular dynamics calculations. This is conceptually simpler that the Monte Carlo method the equations of motion are solved for a system of A molecules, and periodic boundary conditions are again imposed. This method pennits both the equilibrium and transport properties of the system to be evaluated, essentially by numerically solvmg the equations of motion... [Pg.564]

The solutions of such partial differential equations require infomiation on the spatial boundary conditions and initial conditions. Suppose we have an infinite system in which the concentration flucPiations vanish at the infinite boundary. If, at t = 0 we have a flucPiation at origin 5C(f,0) = AC (f), then the diflfiision equation... [Pg.721]

Surface waves at an interface between two innniscible fluids involve effects due to gravity (g) and surface tension (a) forces. (In this section, o denotes surface tension and a denotes the stress tensor. The two should not be coiifiised with one another.) In a hydrodynamic approach, the interface is treated as a sharp boundary and the two bulk phases as incompressible. The Navier-Stokes equations for the two bulk phases (balance of macroscopic forces is the mgredient) along with the boundary condition at the interface (surface tension o enters here) are solved for possible hamionic oscillations of the interface of the fomi, exp [-(iu + s)t + i V-.r], where m is the frequency, is the damping coefficient, s tlie 2-d wavevector of the periodic oscillation and. ra 2-d vector parallel to the surface. For a liquid-vapour interface which we consider, away from the critical point, the vapour density is negligible compared to the liquid density and one obtains the hydrodynamic dispersion relation for surface waves + s>tf. The temi gq in the dispersion relation arises from... [Pg.725]

The boundary conditions at the z=0 surface arise from the mechanical equilibrium, which implies that both the nonnal and tangential forces are balanced there. This leads to... [Pg.727]

To derive tire boundary condition, it is better to work with the chemical potential instead of the diffiision field. We have... [Pg.747]

Equation (A3.3.73) is referred to as the Gibbs-Thomson boundary condition, equation (A3.3.74) detemiines p on the interfaces in temis of the curvature, and between the interfaces p satisfies Laplace s equation, equation (A3.3.71). Now, since ] = -Vp, an mterface moves due to the imbalance between the current flowing into and out of it. The interface velocity is therefore given by... [Pg.748]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.777 , Pg.1418 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.41 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.23 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.272 , Pg.493 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.27 , Pg.31 , Pg.33 , Pg.36 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.46 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.121 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.488 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.55 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.268 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.192 , Pg.195 , Pg.197 , Pg.204 , Pg.207 , Pg.218 , Pg.519 , Pg.522 , Pg.526 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.92 , Pg.103 , Pg.120 , Pg.126 , Pg.315 , Pg.327 , Pg.331 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.57 , Pg.114 , Pg.126 , Pg.146 , Pg.157 , Pg.158 , Pg.159 , Pg.202 , Pg.204 , Pg.206 , Pg.212 , Pg.228 , Pg.236 , Pg.255 , Pg.260 , Pg.264 , Pg.346 , Pg.347 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.162 , Pg.421 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.80 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.3 , Pg.4 , Pg.9 , Pg.30 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.42 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.268 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.65 , Pg.221 , Pg.352 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.316 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.21 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.344 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.354 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.30 , Pg.31 , Pg.33 , Pg.34 , Pg.36 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.15 , Pg.18 , Pg.19 , Pg.21 , Pg.22 , Pg.85 , Pg.86 , Pg.87 , Pg.88 , Pg.89 , Pg.90 , Pg.91 , Pg.92 , Pg.93 , Pg.94 , Pg.95 , Pg.96 , Pg.97 , Pg.98 , Pg.99 , Pg.100 , Pg.101 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.314 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.245 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.121 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.44 , Pg.56 , Pg.497 , Pg.501 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.201 , Pg.202 , Pg.205 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.91 , Pg.130 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.354 , Pg.616 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.376 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.187 , Pg.233 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.31 , Pg.48 , Pg.56 , Pg.73 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.77 , Pg.78 , Pg.79 , Pg.80 , Pg.81 , Pg.82 , Pg.83 , Pg.84 , Pg.85 , Pg.294 , Pg.298 , Pg.303 , Pg.311 , Pg.783 , Pg.788 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.363 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.355 , Pg.365 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.81 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.14 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.45 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.92 , Pg.103 , Pg.120 , Pg.126 , Pg.315 , Pg.327 , Pg.331 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.404 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.29 , Pg.38 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.621 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.238 , Pg.248 , Pg.251 , Pg.576 , Pg.579 , Pg.583 , Pg.584 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.272 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.17 , Pg.65 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.4 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.57 , Pg.114 , Pg.126 , Pg.146 , Pg.157 , Pg.158 , Pg.159 , Pg.202 , Pg.204 , Pg.206 , Pg.212 , Pg.228 , Pg.236 , Pg.255 , Pg.260 , Pg.264 , Pg.346 , Pg.347 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.55 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.456 , Pg.457 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.428 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.243 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.150 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.240 , Pg.256 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.79 , Pg.82 , Pg.83 , Pg.118 , Pg.136 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.96 , Pg.103 , Pg.143 , Pg.149 , Pg.190 , Pg.190 , Pg.293 , Pg.293 , Pg.302 , Pg.302 , Pg.312 , Pg.312 , Pg.315 , Pg.315 , Pg.317 , Pg.317 , Pg.318 , Pg.541 , Pg.542 , Pg.577 , Pg.581 , Pg.620 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.453 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.267 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.80 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.80 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.25 , Pg.42 , Pg.152 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.109 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.134 , Pg.149 , Pg.238 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.29 , Pg.176 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.544 , Pg.545 , Pg.546 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.32 , Pg.161 , Pg.162 , Pg.164 , Pg.209 , Pg.210 , Pg.216 , Pg.221 , Pg.224 , Pg.231 , Pg.237 , Pg.239 , Pg.247 , Pg.255 , Pg.260 , Pg.263 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.3 , Pg.4 , Pg.6 , Pg.31 , Pg.33 , Pg.85 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.14 , Pg.22 , Pg.28 , Pg.30 , Pg.57 , Pg.70 , Pg.138 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.147 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.87 , Pg.295 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.315 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.14 , Pg.32 , Pg.178 , Pg.187 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.86 , Pg.97 , Pg.98 , Pg.100 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.121 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.65 , Pg.67 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.46 , Pg.47 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.6 , Pg.35 , Pg.36 , Pg.71 , Pg.72 , Pg.77 , Pg.97 , Pg.111 , Pg.120 , Pg.213 , Pg.214 , Pg.225 , Pg.237 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.227 , Pg.540 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.240 , Pg.245 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.269 , Pg.270 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.26 , Pg.46 , Pg.51 , Pg.54 , Pg.66 , Pg.144 , Pg.147 , Pg.151 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.93 , Pg.95 , Pg.96 , Pg.103 , Pg.104 , Pg.109 , Pg.110 , Pg.113 , Pg.114 , Pg.120 , Pg.126 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.5 , Pg.9 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.46 , Pg.49 , Pg.70 , Pg.74 , Pg.76 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.72 , Pg.76 , Pg.94 , Pg.99 , Pg.157 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.75 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.76 , Pg.169 , Pg.176 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.100 , Pg.107 , Pg.222 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.70 , Pg.297 , Pg.302 , Pg.763 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.228 , Pg.229 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.231 , Pg.246 , Pg.250 , Pg.261 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.79 , Pg.82 , Pg.83 , Pg.118 , Pg.136 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.56 , Pg.70 , Pg.103 , Pg.104 , Pg.105 , Pg.108 , Pg.128 , Pg.143 , Pg.144 , Pg.153 , Pg.154 , Pg.166 , Pg.176 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.20 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.13 , Pg.22 , Pg.28 , Pg.29 , Pg.39 , Pg.55 , Pg.132 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.74 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.31 , Pg.38 , Pg.40 , Pg.44 , Pg.56 , Pg.59 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.123 , Pg.127 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.445 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.58 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.7 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.16 , Pg.19 , Pg.21 , Pg.22 , Pg.24 , Pg.101 , Pg.102 , Pg.103 , Pg.104 , Pg.105 , Pg.106 , Pg.107 , Pg.108 , Pg.109 , Pg.110 , Pg.111 , Pg.112 , Pg.113 , Pg.114 , Pg.115 , Pg.116 , Pg.117 , Pg.118 , Pg.119 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.318 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.227 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.30 , Pg.200 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.293 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.2 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.306 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.133 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.7 , Pg.11 , Pg.14 , Pg.16 , Pg.19 , Pg.20 , Pg.22 , Pg.24 , Pg.26 , Pg.28 , Pg.30 , Pg.33 , Pg.34 , Pg.35 , Pg.41 , Pg.45 , Pg.47 , Pg.51 , Pg.57 , Pg.60 , Pg.61 , Pg.69 , Pg.79 , Pg.82 , Pg.99 , Pg.102 , Pg.108 , Pg.112 , Pg.115 , Pg.118 , Pg.120 , Pg.123 , Pg.126 , Pg.129 , Pg.135 , Pg.144 , Pg.148 , Pg.151 , Pg.155 , Pg.158 , Pg.164 , Pg.168 , Pg.169 , Pg.170 , Pg.171 , Pg.178 , Pg.182 , Pg.197 , Pg.197 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.118 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.188 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.12 , Pg.227 , Pg.266 , Pg.274 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.240 , Pg.256 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.144 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.66 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.142 , Pg.152 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.484 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.26 , Pg.54 , Pg.67 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.128 , Pg.134 , Pg.137 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.11 , Pg.12 , Pg.13 , Pg.14 , Pg.15 , Pg.16 , Pg.17 , Pg.18 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.3 , Pg.1632 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.21 , Pg.23 , Pg.38 , Pg.185 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.542 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.98 , Pg.110 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.646 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.355 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.155 , Pg.168 , Pg.173 , Pg.178 , Pg.187 , Pg.198 , Pg.200 , Pg.210 , Pg.220 , Pg.250 , Pg.254 , Pg.273 , Pg.280 , Pg.314 , Pg.325 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.89 , Pg.127 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.46 , Pg.150 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.204 , Pg.206 , Pg.207 , Pg.208 , Pg.209 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.69 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.710 , Pg.904 ]

© 2019 chempedia.info