The conversion factor, C, is included to ensure that the units agree given the units specified for all of the other quantities in the equation and for the units specified above, C, = 14 700. By convention, re is usually set to 201 m or 600 ft for 16.2 hectare or 40 acre well spacing. [Pg.242]

Comparing two fluids using Darcy s law and assuming the permeability is independent of the fluid, gives [Pg.242]

Thus given the injection rate of the test fluid, say water, and its viscosity, and the bottom hole pressure, one can estimate the injection rate for the acid gas at a given bottom hole pressure, given the viscosity of the acid gas. Methods for calculating the viscosity of acid gas were given earlier, and the viscosity of water as a function of pressure and temperature is well known. [Pg.242]

When water is used as the test fluid, the injectivity of acid gas will always be greater than the test fluid for a given pressure drop. The reason for this is that the viscosity of acid gas is less than that of water at the same conditions. Alternatively, for a given pressure drop, the injection rate for acid gas will always be great then the injection rate for water. [Pg.242]

Daniels and Johnston have studied this decomposition in the gas phase and in a wide range of solvents and found that, except for nitric acid and 1,2-dichloro-propane as solvents, the rate of reaction was little affected by the medium (Table iy°. This is typical of unimolecular reactions occurring in both gaseous and liquid phases [Pg.144]

The normal boiling temperature for COFj, by interpolation of vapour pressure measurements, is 188.58 K (-84.57 C) [1580]. Earlier estimations gave 189.9 0.5 K (-83.3 C) [1756] and 190.05 K (-83.10 C) [1192]. The molar enthalpy of vaporization of COFj at 188.58 K was determined to be 18.28 0.03 kJ mol [1580], although earlier workers reported a much lower value of 16.07 kJ mol from vapour pressure measurements [1756]. These values correspond to a Trouton s constant of 96.94 and 85.2 J mol K , respectively, using the most recent value of the boiling temperature. The molar entropy of vaporization (Trouton s constant) for COFj (the difference between the entropy of the gas and the entropy of the liquid) has also been calculated as 100.40 J mol K [1683]. The [Pg.604]

Selected thermodynamic properties of liquid COFj have been estimated [1683]. These calculated values for the Helmholtz free energy function (-G/RT), liquid entropy (5), and heat capacity at constant volume (C,) are recorded in Table 13.11. [Pg.604]

MOLAR HEAT CAPACITY OF UQUID CARBONYL DIFLUORIDE (162-189 K) [1580] [Pg.605]

SELECTED CALCULATED THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF UQUID COFj [1683] [Pg.605]

The vapour pressure of liquid COF j from the triple point to the normal boiling temperature is given by Equation (13.12) [1580] the experimental data from which this [Pg.605]

In vapor-liquid equilibria, if one phase composition is given, there are basically four types of problems, characterized by those variables which are specified and those which are to be calculated. Let T stand for temperature, P for total pressure, for the mole fraction of component i in the liquid phase, and y for the mole fraction of component i in the vapor phase. For a mixture containing m components, the four types can be organized in this way ... [Pg.3]

In vapor-liquid equilibria, it is relatively easy to start the iteration because assumption of ideal behavior (Raoult s law) provides a reasonable zeroth approximation. By contrast, there is no obvious corresponding method to start the iteration calculation for liquid-liquid equilibria. Further, when two liquid phases are present, we must calculate for each component activity coefficients in two phases since these are often strongly nonlinear functions of compositions, liquid-liquid equilibrium calculations are highly sensitive to small changes in composition. In vapor-liquid equilibria at modest pressures, this sensitivity is lower because vapor-phase fugacity coefficients are usually close to unity and only weak functions of composition. For liquid-liquid equilibria, it is therefore more difficult to construct a numerical iteration procedure that converges both rapidly and consistently. [Pg.4]

In Chapter 2 we discuss briefly the thermodynamic functions whereby the abstract fugacities are related to the measurable, real quantities temperature, pressure, and composition. This formulation is then given more completely in Chapters 3 and 4, which present detailed material on vapor-phase and liquid-phase fugacities, respectively. [Pg.5]

For a vapor phase (superscript V) and a liquid phase (superscript L), at the same temperature, the equation of equilibrium... [Pg.14]

Equation (1) is of little practical use unless the fuga-cities can be related to the experimentally accessible quantities X, y, T, and P, where x stands for the composition (expressed in mole fraction) of the liquid phase, y for the composition (also expressed in mole fraction) of the vapor phase, T for the absolute temperature, and P for the total pressure, assumed to be the same for both phases. The desired relationship between fugacities and experimentally accessible quantities is facilitated by two auxiliary functions which are given the symbols (f... [Pg.14]

The activity coefficient y relates the liquid-phase fugacity... [Pg.14]

For a liquid phase (superscript ) in equilibrium with another liquid phase (superscript "), the equation analogous to Equation (1) is... [Pg.15]

We can now consider the most convenient form for writing the liquid-phase fugacity of component i. First we consider a condensable component and write... [Pg.21]

At pressures to a few bars, the vapor phase is at a relatively low density, i.e., on the average, the molecules interact with one another less strongly than do the molecules in the much denser liquid phase. It is therefore a common simplification to assume that all the nonideality in vapor-liquid systems exist in the liquid phase and that the vapor phase can be treated as an ideal gas. This leads to the simple result that the fugacity of component i is given by its partial pressure, i.e. the product of y, the mole fraction of i in the vapor, and P, the total pressure. A somewhat less restrictive simplification is the Lewis fugacity rule which sets the fugacity of i in the vapor mixture proportional to its mole fraction in the vapor phase the constant of proportionality is the fugacity of pure i vapor at the temperature and pressure of the mixture. These simplifications are attractive because they make the calculation of vapor-liquid equilibria much easier the K factors = i i ... [Pg.25]

As discussed in Chapter 3, at moderate pressures, vapor-phase nonideality is usually small in comparison to liquid-phase nonideality. However, when associating carboxylic acids are present, vapor-phase nonideality may dominate. These acids dimerize appreciably in the vapor phase even at low pressures fugacity coefficients are well removed from unity. To illustrate. Figures 8 and 9 show observed and calculated vapor-liquid equilibria for two systems containing an associating component. [Pg.51]

Figure 4-9. Vapor-liquid equilibria for a binary system where one component dimerizes in the vapor phase. Activity coefficients show only small deviations from liquid-phase ideality. |

To illustrate calculations for a binary system containing a supercritical, condensable component. Figure 12 shows isobaric equilibria for ethane-n-heptane. Using the virial equation for vapor-phase fugacity coefficients, and the UNIQUAC equation for liquid-phase activity coefficients, calculated results give an excellent representation of the data of Kay (1938). In this case,the total pressure is not large and therefore, the mixture is at all times remote from critical conditions. For this binary system, the particular method of calculation used here would not be successful at appreciably higher pressures. [Pg.59]

Table 3 shows results obtained from a five-component, isothermal flash calculation. In this system there are two condensable components (acetone and benzene) and three noncondensable components (hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane). Henry s constants for each of the noncondensables were obtained from Equations (18-22) the simplifying assumption for dilute solutions [Equation (17)] was also used for each of the noncondensables. Activity coefficients for both condensable components were calculated with the UNIQUAC equation. For that calculation, all liquid-phase composition variables are on a solute-free basis the only required binary parameters are those for the acetone-benzene system. While no experimental data are available for comparison, the calculated results are probably reliable because all simplifying assumptions are reasonable the... [Pg.61]

Equation (23) holds only when, for every component i, the same standard-state fugacity is used in both liquid phases. [Pg.63]

In Equation (24), a is the estimated standard deviation for each of the measured variables, i.e. pressure, temperature, and liquid-phase and vapor-phase compositions. The values assigned to a determine the relative weighting between the tieline data and the vapor-liquid equilibrium data this weighting determines how well the ternary system is represented. This weighting depends first, on the estimated accuracy of the ternary data, relative to that of the binary vapor-liquid data and second, on how remote the temperature of the binary data is from that of the ternary data and finally, on how important in a design the liquid-liquid equilibria are relative to the vapor-liquid equilibria. Typical values which we use in data reduction are Op = 1 mm Hg, = 0.05°C, = 0.001, and = 0.003... [Pg.68]

Using the ternary tie-line data and the binary VLE data for the miscible binary pairs, the optimum binary parameters are obtained for each ternary of the type 1-2-i for i = 3. .. m. This results in multiple sets of the parameters for the 1-2 binary, since this binary occurs in each of the ternaries containing two liquid phases. To determine a single set of parameters to represent the 1-2 binary system, the values obtained from initial data reduction of each of the ternary systems are plotted with their approximate confidence ellipses. We choose a single optimum set from the intersection of the confidence ellipses. Finally, with the parameters for the 1-2 binary set at their optimum value, the parameters are adjusted for the remaining miscible binary in each ternary, i.e. the parameters for the 2-i binary system in each ternary of the type 1-2-i for i = 3. .. m. This adjustment is made, again, using the ternary tie-line data and binary VLE data. [Pg.74]

A liquid-phase model for the excess Gibbs energy provides... [Pg.76]

Enthalpies are referred to the ideal vapor. The enthalpy of the real vapor is found from zero-pressure heat capacities and from the virial equation of state for non-associated species or, for vapors containing highly dimerized vapors (e.g. organic acids), from the chemical theory of vapor imperfections, as discussed in Chapter 3. For pure components, liquid-phase enthalpies (relative to the ideal vapor) are found from differentiation of the zero-pressure standard-state fugacities these, in turn, are determined from vapor-pressure data, from vapor-phase corrections and liquid-phase densities. If good experimental data are used to determine the standard-state fugacity, the derivative gives enthalpies of liquids to nearly the same precision as that obtained with calorimetric data, and provides reliable heats of vaporization. [Pg.82]

In Equation (15), the third term is much more important than the second term. The third term gives the enthalpy of the ideal liquid mixture (corrected to zero pressure) relative to that of the ideal vapor at the same temperature and composition. The second term gives the excess enthalpy, i.e. the liquid-phase enthalpy of mixing often little basis exists for evaluation of this term, but fortunately its contribution to total liquid enthalpy is usually not large. [Pg.86]

Figure 1 gives an enthalpy-concentration diagram for ethanol(1)-water(2) at 1 atm. (The reference enthalpy is defined as that of the pure liquid at 0°C and 1 atm.) In this case both components are condensables. The liquid-phase enthalpy of mixing... [Pg.89]

Table 1 indicates that the enthalpy of mixing in the liquid phase is not important when calculating enthalpies of vaporization, even though for this system, the enthalpy of mixing is large (Brown, 1964) when compared to other enthalpies of mixing for typical mixtures of nonelectrolytes. [Pg.91]

Figure 3 presents results for acetic acid(1)-water(2) at 1 atm. In this case deviations from ideality are important for the vapor phase as well as the liquid phase. For the vapor phase, calculations are based on the chemical theory of vapor-phase imperfections, as discussed in Chapter 3. Calculated results are in good agreement with similar calculations reported by Lemlich et al. (1957). ... [Pg.91]

Finally, Table 2 shows enthalpy calculations for the system nitrogen-water at 100 atm. in the range 313.5-584.7°K. [See also Figure (4-13).] The mole fraction of nitrogen in the liquid phase is small throughout, but that in the vapor phase varies from essentially unity at the low-temperature end to zero at the high-temperature end. In the liquid phase, the enthalpy is determined primarily by the temperature, but in the vapor phase it is determined by both temperature and composition. [Pg.93]

This chapter presents quantitative methods for calculation of enthalpies of vapor-phase and liquid-phase mixtures. These methods rely primarily on pure-component data, in particular ideal-vapor heat capacities and vapor-pressure data, both as functions of temperature. Vapor-phase corrections for nonideality are usually relatively small. Liquid-phase excess enthalpies are also usually not important. As indicated in Chapter 4, for mixtures containing noncondensable components, we restrict attention to liquid solutions which are dilute with respect to all noncondensable components. [Pg.93]

Two generally accepted models for the vapor phase were discussed in Chapter 3 and one particular model for the liquid phase (UNIQUAC) was discussed in Chapter 4. Unfortunately, these, and all other presently available models, are only approximate when used to calculate equilibrium properties of dense fluid mixtures. Therefore, any such model must contain a number of adjustable parameters, which can only be obtained from experimental measurements. The predictions of the model may be sensitive to the values selected for model parameters, and the data available may contain significant measurement errors. Thus, it is of major importance that serious consideration be given to the proper treatment of experimental measurements for mixtures to obtain the most appropriate values for parameters in models such as UNIQUAC. [Pg.96]

Unfortunately, many commonly used methods for parameter estimation give only estimates for the parameters and no measures of their uncertainty. This is usually accomplished by calculation of the dependent variable at each experimental point, summation of the squared differences between the calculated and measured values, and adjustment of parameters to minimize this sum. Such methods routinely ignore errors in the measured independent variables. For example, in vapor-liquid equilibrium data reduction, errors in the liquid-phase mole fraction and temperature measurements are often assumed to be absent. The total pressure is calculated as a function of the estimated parameters, the measured temperature, and the measured liquid-phase mole fraction. [Pg.97]

Equation (7-8). However, for liquid-liquid equilibria, the equilibrium ratios are strong functions of both phase compositions. The system is thus far more difficult to solve than the superficially similar system of equations for the isothermal vapor-liquid flash. In fact, some of the arguments leading to the selection of the Rachford-Rice form for Equation (7-17) do not apply strictly in the case of two liquid phases. Nevertheless, this form does avoid spurious roots at a = 0 or 1 and has been shown, by extensive experience, to be marltedly superior to alternatives. [Pg.115]

The convergence rate depends somewhat on the problem and on the initial estimates used. For mixtures that are not extremely wide-boiling, convergence is usually accomplished in three or four iterations,t even in the presence of relatively strong liquid-phase nonidealities. For example, cases 1 through 4 in Table 1 are typical of relatively close-boiling mixtures the latter three exhibit significant liquid-phase nonidealities. [Pg.122]

We have repeatedly observed that the slowly converging variables in liquid-liquid calculations following the isothermal flash procedure are the mole fractions of the two solvent components in the conjugate liquid phases. In addition, we have found that the mole fractions of these components, as well as those of the other components, follow roughly linear relationships with certain measures of deviation from equilibrium, such as the differences in component activities (or fugacities) in the extract and the raffinate. [Pg.124]

Figure 7-2. Conjugate liquid phase compositions for water-acrylonitrile-acetonitrile system calculated with subroutine ELIPS for feeds shown by . ... |

At the user s option, one of two methods can be used to calculate the liquid-phase reference fugacity (1) An empirical... [Pg.211]

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