For a liquid phase (superscript ) in equilibrium with another liquid phase (superscript "), the equation analogous to Equation (1) is [Pg.15]

In vapor-liquid equilibria, if one phase composition is given, there are basically four types of problems, characterized by those variables which are specified and those which are to be calculated. Let T stand for temperature, P for total pressure, for the mole fraction of component i in the liquid phase, and y for the mole fraction of component i in the vapor phase. For a mixture containing m components, the four types can be organized in this way [Pg.3]

Figure 7-2. Conjugate liquid phase compositions for water-acrylonitrile-acetonitrile system calculated with subroutine ELIPS for feeds shown by . |

INTEf ACTlON PARAMETERS FOR LIQUID-PHASE MIXTURES [Pg.188]

The activity coefficient y relates the liquid-phase fugacity [Pg.14]

Figure 4-9. Vapor-liquid equilibria for a binary system where one component dimerizes in the vapor phase. Activity coefficients show only small deviations from liquid-phase ideality. |

Equation (7-8). However, for liquid-liquid equilibria, the equilibrium ratios are strong functions of both phase compositions. The system is thus far more difficult to solve than the superficially similar system of equations for the isothermal vapor-liquid flash. In fact, some of the arguments leading to the selection of the Rachford-Rice form for Equation (7-17) do not apply strictly in the case of two liquid phases. Nevertheless, this form does avoid spurious roots at a = 0 or 1 and has been shown, by extensive experience, to be marltedly superior to alternatives. [Pg.115]

At the user s option, one of two methods can be used to calculate the liquid-phase reference fugacity (1) An empirical [Pg.211]

Figure 2 shows similar results for ethanol(1)-n-hexane(2) at 1 atm. The liquid-phase enthalpy of mixing was again estimated from UNIQUAC using temperature-independent parameters. [Pg.90]

Two generally accepted models for the vapor phase were discussed in Chapter 3 and one particular model for the liquid phase (UNIQUAC) was discussed in Chapter 4. Unfortunately, these, and all other presently available models, are only approximate when used to calculate equilibrium properties of dense fluid mixtures. Therefore, any such model must contain a number of adjustable parameters, which can only be obtained from experimental measurements. The predictions of the model may be sensitive to the values selected for model parameters, and the data available may contain significant measurement errors. Thus, it is of major importance that serious consideration be given to the proper treatment of experimental measurements for mixtures to obtain the most appropriate values for parameters in models such as UNIQUAC. [Pg.96]

As discussed in Chapter 3, at moderate pressures, vapor-phase nonideality is usually small in comparison to liquid-phase nonideality. However, when associating carboxylic acids are present, vapor-phase nonideality may dominate. These acids dimerize appreciably in the vapor phase even at low pressures fugacity coefficients are well removed from unity. To illustrate. Figures 8 and 9 show observed and calculated vapor-liquid equilibria for two systems containing an associating component. [Pg.51]

This chapter presents quantitative methods for calculation of enthalpies of vapor-phase and liquid-phase mixtures. These methods rely primarily on pure-component data, in particular ideal-vapor heat capacities and vapor-pressure data, both as functions of temperature. Vapor-phase corrections for nonideality are usually relatively small. Liquid-phase excess enthalpies are also usually not important. As indicated in Chapter 4, for mixtures containing noncondensable components, we restrict attention to liquid solutions which are dilute with respect to all noncondensable components. [Pg.93]

The detailed techniques presented here are based on particular models for the vapor phase (Hayden-O Connell) and for the liquid phase (UNIQUAC). However, our discussion of these techniques is sufficiently general to allow the use of other models, whenever the user prefers to do so. [Pg.2]

Equation (23) holds only when, for every component i, the same standard-state fugacity is used in both liquid phases. [Pg.63]

In Equation (24), a is the estimated standard deviation for each of the measured variables, i.e. pressure, temperature, and liquid-phase and vapor-phase compositions. The values assigned to a determine the relative weighting between the tieline data and the vapor-liquid equilibrium data this weighting determines how well the ternary system is represented. This weighting depends first, on the estimated accuracy of the ternary data, relative to that of the binary vapor-liquid data and second, on how remote the temperature of the binary data is from that of the ternary data and finally, on how important in a design the liquid-liquid equilibria are relative to the vapor-liquid equilibria. Typical values which we use in data reduction are Op = 1 mm Hg, = 0.05°C, = 0.001, and = 0.003 [Pg.68]

Figure 3 presents results for acetic acid(1)-water(2) at 1 atm. In this case deviations from ideality are important for the vapor phase as well as the liquid phase. For the vapor phase, calculations are based on the chemical theory of vapor-phase imperfections, as discussed in Chapter 3. Calculated results are in good agreement with similar calculations reported by Lemlich et al. (1957). [Pg.91]

We have repeatedly observed that the slowly converging variables in liquid-liquid calculations following the isothermal flash procedure are the mole fractions of the two solvent components in the conjugate liquid phases. In addition, we have found that the mole fractions of these components, as well as those of the other components, follow roughly linear relationships with certain measures of deviation from equilibrium, such as the differences in component activities (or fugacities) in the extract and the raffinate. [Pg.124]

Equation (1) is of little practical use unless the fuga-cities can be related to the experimentally accessible quantities X, y, T, and P, where x stands for the composition (expressed in mole fraction) of the liquid phase, y for the composition (also expressed in mole fraction) of the vapor phase, T for the absolute temperature, and P for the total pressure, assumed to be the same for both phases. The desired relationship between fugacities and experimentally accessible quantities is facilitated by two auxiliary functions which are given the symbols (f [Pg.14]

In Equation (15), the third term is much more important than the second term. The third term gives the enthalpy of the ideal liquid mixture (corrected to zero pressure) relative to that of the ideal vapor at the same temperature and composition. The second term gives the excess enthalpy, i.e. the liquid-phase enthalpy of mixing often little basis exists for evaluation of this term, but fortunately its contribution to total liquid enthalpy is usually not large. [Pg.86]

As discussed in Chapter 2, for noncondensable components, the unsymmetric convention is used to normalize activity coefficients. For a noncondensable component i in a multicomponent mixture, we write the fugacity in the liquid phase [Pg.55]

In Chapter 2 we discuss briefly the thermodynamic functions whereby the abstract fugacities are related to the measurable, real quantities temperature, pressure, and composition. This formulation is then given more completely in Chapters 3 and 4, which present detailed material on vapor-phase and liquid-phase fugacities, respectively. [Pg.5]

Unfortunately, many commonly used methods for parameter estimation give only estimates for the parameters and no measures of their uncertainty. This is usually accomplished by calculation of the dependent variable at each experimental point, summation of the squared differences between the calculated and measured values, and adjustment of parameters to minimize this sum. Such methods routinely ignore errors in the measured independent variables. For example, in vapor-liquid equilibrium data reduction, errors in the liquid-phase mole fraction and temperature measurements are often assumed to be absent. The total pressure is calculated as a function of the estimated parameters, the measured temperature, and the measured liquid-phase mole fraction. [Pg.97]

Table 3 shows results obtained from a five-component, isothermal flash calculation. In this system there are two condensable components (acetone and benzene) and three noncondensable components (hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane). Henry s constants for each of the noncondensables were obtained from Equations (18-22) the simplifying assumption for dilute solutions [Equation (17)] was also used for each of the noncondensables. Activity coefficients for both condensable components were calculated with the UNIQUAC equation. For that calculation, all liquid-phase composition variables are on a solute-free basis the only required binary parameters are those for the acetone-benzene system. While no experimental data are available for comparison, the calculated results are probably reliable because all simplifying assumptions are reasonable the [Pg.61]

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