This matrix represents an effective operator that still has to act on the bending functions/ (p),/ (p). A generalization of (24) to the case when the kinetic energy operator (i.e., the coefficients 7 and A) has a different form in the... [Pg.486]

The diagonal elements of the matrix [Eqs. (31) and (32)], actually being an effective operator that acts onto the basis functions Ro,i, are diagonal in the quantum number I as well. The factors exp( 2iAct)) [Eqs. (27)] determine the selection rule for the off-diagonal elements of this matrix in the vibrational basis—they couple the basis functions with different I values with one another (i.e., with I — l A). [Pg.489]

Vo + V2 and = Vo — 2 (actually, effective operators acting onto functions of p and < )), conesponding to the zeroth-order vibronic functions of the form cos(0 —4>) and sin(0 —(()), respectively. PL-H computed the vibronic spectrum of NH2 by carrying out some additional transformations (they found it to be convenient to take the unperturbed situation to be one in which the bending potential coincided with that of the upper electi onic state, which was supposed to be linear) and simplifications (the potential curve for the lower adiabatic electi onic state was assumed to be of quartic order in p, the vibronic wave functions for the upper electronic state were assumed to be represented by sums and differences of pairs of the basis functions with the same quantum number u and / = A) to keep the problem tiactable by means of simple perturbation... [Pg.509]

The matrix elements (60) represent effective operators that still have to act on the functions of nuclear coordinates. The factors exp( 2iAx) determine the selection rules for the matrix elements involving the nuclear basis functions. [Pg.522]

The influence of alkyl groups has been attributed to the +/ effect operating primarily at the 0- and />-positions (i), and somewhat less strongly at the m-position by relay. Alternatively, the effect is seen as stabilising the transition states for 0- and />-substitution (ii), more than... [Pg.163]

Electronic and steric effects operate m the same direction Both cause the equilib rium constants for hydration of aldehydes to be greater than those of ketones... [Pg.715]

It IS not possible to tell by inspection whether the a or p pyranose form of a par ticular carbohydrate predominates at equilibrium As just described the p pyranose form IS the major species present m an aqueous solution of d glucose whereas the a pyranose form predominates m a solution of d mannose (Problem 25 8) The relative abundance of a and p pyranose forms m solution depends on two factors The first is solvation of the anomeric hydroxyl group An equatorial OH is less crowded and better solvated by water than an axial one This effect stabilizes the p pyranose form m aqueous solution The other factor called the anomeric effect, involves an electronic interaction between the nng oxygen and the anomeric substituent and preferentially stabilizes the axial OH of the a pyranose form Because the two effects operate m different directions but are com parable m magnitude m aqueous solution the a pyranose form is more abundant for some carbohydrates and the p pyranose form for others... [Pg.1040]

A similar logic can be applied to copolymers. The story is a bit more complicated to tell, so we only outline the method. If penultimate effects operate, then the probabilities Ph, Pi2> and so on, defined by Eqs. (7.32)-(7.35) should be replaced by conditional probabilities. As a matter of fact, the kind of conditional probabilities needed must be based on the two preceding events. Thus reactions (7.E) and (7.F) are two of the appropriate reactions, and the corresponding probabilities are Pj n and V i2 - Rather than work out all of the possibilities in detail, we summarize the penultimate model as follows ... [Pg.455]

Additive packages have been developed which do an exceUent job of preventing IVD. The key to effective operation is to keep the valve wet so that the additive can prevent deposit buildup. Most packages include a combination of detergent/dispersant and a carrier oil or heavy solvent. If no carrier oil is present, then the fuel may evaporate off the valve too rapidly for the package to be effective. When the valves do not rotate, the portion of the valve which has the highest deposit level is the back side which is not constantly wet. [Pg.187]

Because each effect of an evaporator produces almost as much vapor as the amount it condenses, the total evaporation accompHshed per unit of prime steam, or steam economy, iacreases ia almost direct proportioa to the number of effects used. The total heat load is also spHt up betweea the effects so that each effect has a much lower heat duty than a single effect for the same total evaporation load. However, the total available AT is also spHt up similarly so that each effect of a multiple effect requites about as much heating surface as a single effect operating over the same total temperature difference. Thus ia selecting the number of effects to use ia any iastallatioa, steam cost savings and capital cost of effects have to be balanced. Even before... [Pg.475]

The side depth of the thickener is determined as the sum of the depths needea for the compression zone and for the clear zone. Normally, 1.5 to 2 m of clear liquid depth above the expected pulp level in a thickener will be sufficient for stable, effective operation. When the location of the pulp level cannot be predicted in advance or it is expected to be relatively low, a thickener sidewall depth of 2 to 3 m is usually safe. Greater depth may be used in order to provide better clarity, although in most thickener applications the improvement obtained by this means will be marginal. [Pg.1681]

CCPS G-32. Guidelines for "Writing Effective Operating Maintenance Procedures. American Institute of Chemical Engineers, Center for Chemical Process Safety, New York. [Pg.147]

Gnidelmes for Writing Effective Operating and Maintenance Procednres. New York AIChE/CCPS, 1996. [Pg.211]

The effect of the bond dipole associated with electron-withdrawing groups can also be expressed in terms of its interaction with the cationic u-complex. The atoms with the highest coefficients in the LUMO 3 are the most positive. The unfavorable interaction of the bond dipole will therefore be greatest at these positions. This effect operates with substituents such as carbonyl, cyano, and nitro groups. With ether and amino substituents, the unfavorable dipole interaction is overwhelmed by the stabilizing effect of the lone-pair electrons stabilizing 3. [Pg.559]

In the above example, 1 lb of initial steam should evaporate approximately 1 lb of water in each of the effects A, B and C. In practice however, the evaporation per pound of initial steam, even for a fixed number of effects operated in series, varies widely with conditions, and is best predicted by means of a heat balance.This brings us to the term heat economy. The heat economy of such a system must not be confused with the evaporative capacity of one of the effects. If operated with steam at 220 "F in the heating space and 26 in. vacuum in its vapor space, effect A will evaporate as much water (nearly) as all three effects costing nearly three times its much but it will require approximately three times as much steam and cooling water. The capacity of one or more effects in series is directly proportional to the difference between the condensing temperature of the steam supplied, and the temperature of the boiling solution in the last effect, but also to the overall coefficient of heat transfer from steam to solution. If these factors remain constant, the capacity of one effect is the same as a combination of three effects. [Pg.116]

Bed A mass of ion-exchange resin particles contained in a column. Bed depth The height of the resinous material in the column after the exchanger has been properly conditioned for effective operation. Bed expansion The effect produced during backwashing when the resin particles become separated and rise in the column. The... [Pg.435]

Destruction of the Microorganisms by Production of a Biocidal Chemical Species - It has been shown that NaCl is not needed for effective operation in the destruction of microorganisms. Biocidal species such as Cl, HO 0, CIO, and HOCI occur but have very low diffusion coeffieients. Henee, if this phenomenon oeeurs, the probability is that organisms are destroyed at the eleetrode surfaee rather than in the bulk solution. [Pg.454]

Maintenance of records to demonstrate compliance with the prescribed regulations and effective operation of the management system... [Pg.151]

The standard does not require you to demonstrate that you meet all the requirements of the standard. It only requires a quality system to be documented, implemented, and maintained. While clause 4.16 on quality records does in fact require you to demonstrate the effective operation of the quality system, it does not dictate how you should... [Pg.157]

The standard requires that quality records be maintained to demonstrate conformance to specified requirements and the effective operation of the quality system. [Pg.491]

In many industries, rule books have a tendency to become enshrined as policy statements, either for internal or external regulatory purposes. Unfortunately, the format that is appropriate for a regulatory or standards document is unlikely to fulfill the requirements of an effective operating instruction or procedure to provide assistance in carrying out a task effectively. [Pg.123]

HTA is best developed as a collaboration between the task analyst and people involved in operations. Thus, the analyst develops the description of the task in accordance with the perceptions of line personnel who are responsible for effective operation of the system. [Pg.167]

Unconditional Probability (weighted sum) that Effective Operating Instructions are. 255. 744 ... [Pg.243]

Similar assessments are performed to evaluate the probability that effective operating instructions are available (Table 6) that staffing levels are adequate (Table 9) and that time pressure will be high or low (Table 10). In this latter case, since three influences impact upon time pressure, eight joint assessments need to be made. [Pg.243]

The types of records needed to demonstrate adherence to requirements and standards as well as effective operation of the quality (ESH/PSM) management system are covered in this element. In addition to many of the quality records listed (e.g., inspection reports, audit reports, operational procedures, and drawings), ESH/PSM requirements might include training records, permits, hazard analyses, audit and other response plans, and accident/inci-dent investigation reports. [Pg.164]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.185 , Pg.186 ]

© 2019 chempedia.info