For a three-component mixture, there are only two alternative sequences. The complexity increases dramatically as the number of components increases. Figure 5.2 shows the alternative sequences for a five-component mixture. Table 5.1 shows the relationship between the number of products and the number of possible sequences for simple columns. ... [Pg.130]

effluent treatment systems are designed from a knowledge of BOD and COD. Thus we need to somehow establish the relationship between BOD, COD, and the concentration of waste streams leaving the process. Without measurements, relationships can only be established approximately. The relationship between BOD and COD is not easy to establish, since different materials will oxidize at different rates. To compound the problem, many wastes contain complex mixtures of oxidizable materials, perhaps together with chemicals that inhibit the oxidation reactions. [Pg.309]

The relationship between heat exchanger area and overall heat transfer coefficient U is given by... [Pg.448]

Relationships between the intensity of incident light, sample thickness, concentration and intensity of transmitted light are embodied in Beer s law and Lambert s law. ... [Pg.9]

Freundlich isotherm The empirical relationship between the amount of a substance adsorbed and the concentration of the solute... [Pg.182]

Karplusequation The relationship between the keten, CH2ICO. A colourless gas, manufac-... [Pg.230]

Relationship between the residual aromatics content, the hydrogen partial pressure, and the chemical hydrogen consumption (for a SR gas oil). [Pg.404]

Starting at condition A with the ethane in the liquid phase, and assuming isothermal depletion, then as the pressure is reduced so the specific volume increases as the molecules move further apart. The relationship between pressure and volume is governed by the compressibility of the liquid ethane. [Pg.98]

In a reservoir at initial conditions, an equilibrium exists between buoyancy forces and capillary forces. These forces determine the initial distribution of fluids, and hence the volumes of fluid in place. An understanding of the relationship between these forces is useful in calculating volumetries, and in explaining the difference between free water level (FWL) and oil-water contact (OWC) introduced in the last section. [Pg.120]

The relationship between the pressure drop across the interface AP, the interfacial tension o, and the radius of the droplet, r, is... [Pg.121]

In preparation for a field wide quick look correlation, all well logs need to be corrected for borehole inclination. This is done routinely with software which uses the measured depth below the derrick floor ( alonghole depth below derrick floor AHBDFor measured depth , MD) and the acquired directional surveys to calculate the true vertical depth subsea (TVSS). This is the vertical distance of a point below a common reference level, for instance chart datum (CD) or mean sea level (MSL). Figure 5.41 shows the relationship between the different depth measurements. [Pg.137]

Nearly all reservoirs are water bearing prior to hydrocarbon charge. As hydrocarbons migrate into a trap they displace the water from the reservoir, but not completely. Water remains trapped in small pore throats and pore spaces. In 1942 Arch/ e developed an equation describing the relationship between the electrical conductivity of reservoir rock and the properties of its pore system and pore fluids. [Pg.147]

It is common practice within oil companies to use expectation curves to express ranges of uncertainty. The relationship between probability density functions and expectation curves is a simple one. [Pg.159]

The following diagram represents underground volumes of fluid produced. The relationship between the underground volumes (measured in reservoir barrels) and the volumes at surface conditions is discussed in Section 5.2. The relationships were denoted by... [Pg.184]

Reservoir engineers describe the relationship between the volume of fluids produced, the compressibility of the fluids and the reservoir pressure using material balance techniques. This approach treats the reservoir system like a tank, filled with oil, water, gas, and reservoir rock in the appropriate volumes, but without regard to the distribution of the fluids (i.e. the detailed movement of fluids inside the system). Material balance uses the PVT properties of the fluids described in Section 5.2.6, and accounts for the variations of fluid properties with pressure. The technique is firstly useful in predicting how reservoir pressure will respond to production. Secondly, material balance can be used to reduce uncertainty in volumetries by measuring reservoir pressure and cumulative production during the producing phase of the field life. An example of the simplest material balance equation for an oil reservoir above the bubble point will be shown In the next section. [Pg.185]

Recall that the recovery factor (RF) defines the relationship between the hydrocarbons initially in place (HCIIP) and the ultimate recovery for the field. [Pg.206]

Once the production potential of the producing wells is insufficient to maintain the plateau rate, the decline periodbegins. For an individual well in depletion drive, this commences as soon as production starts, and a plateau for the field can only be maintained by drilling more wells. Well performance during the decline period can be estimated by decline curve analysis which assumes that the decline can be described by a mathematical formula. Examples of this would be to assume an exponential decline with 10% decline per annum, or a straight line relationship between the cumulative oil production and the logarithm of the water cut. These assumptions become more robust when based on a fit to measured production data. [Pg.209]

The relationship between the flowrate (Q) towards the well and the pressure drawdown is approximately linear, and is defined by the productivity index (PI). [Pg.216]

In the example above the relationship between four activities of different duration is shown. In this case the critical path is indicated by the lowest route (six days), since the last activity cannot start until all the previous activities have been completed. [Pg.296]

The relationship between the tubing performance and reservoir performance is more fully explained in Section 9.5. [Pg.339]

The analysis of the curves obtained in the thin-skin regime ean lead to a simple determination of slot length depending on the dimension of the probe chosen for the inspection. If the size of the probe (outer diameter) is smaller than the defect length we can notice 5 zones relative to the relationship between the position of the probe, the interaction of the induced eddy current and the slot, and the impedance change for the probe. [Pg.146]

The relationship between image contrast and resolution was modelled... [Pg.211]

Restoring of SD of parameters of stress field is based on the effect of acoustoelasticity. Its fundamental problem is determination of relationship between US wave parameters and components of stresses. To use in practice acoustoelasticity for SDS diagnosing, it is designed matrix theory [Bobrenco, 1991]. For the description of the elastic waves spreading in the medium it uses matrices of velocity v of US waves spreading, absolute A and relative... [Pg.250]

The step response function h(x) is also determined by the integral equation (1). The relationship between step response h(x) and the impulse response g(x) is represented by... [Pg.366]

Constant steps are not necessary, but they simplify the matrix g of eq.(6). Eq.(5) and eq.(6) respectively show the relationship between input and output signal for discrete signal processing. It is given by a linear equation system, which can easily be solved. [Pg.367]

The SPATE technique is based on measurement of the thermoelastic effect. Within the elastic range, a body subjected to tensile or compressive stresses experiences a reversible conversion between mechanical and thermal energy. Provided adiabatic conditions are maintained, the relationship between the reversible temperature change and the corresponding change in the sum of the principal stresses is linear and indipendent of the load frequency. [Pg.409]

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