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** How Can Temperature Coefficients of Reversible Cells Be Used to Obtain Ionic Entropies **

Species interactions are considerably more difficult. The specific coefficients which characterize the interaction of two species as a function of ionic strength and temperature are quite dependent upon both model formulation and regression (fitting) of experimental data. [Pg.584]

1) Published values for the interaction coefficients are applicable over limited ranges of ionic strength and temperature. [Pg.584]

2) Published interaction coefficients were fit based upon a supposition as to the chemical reactions occurring and the species present. If a significant Intermediate is left out in formulating the model, the resulting interactions calculated may have very limited validity, particularly if one tries to utilize them as part of calculations involving additional components. These then are model dependent coefficients and may reproduce the experimental data, but do not apply to other systems. [Pg.584]

3) In the absence of reasonable published interaction coefficients, it is necessary to utilize one of several possible approaches [Pg.585]

The calculated values are higher than the experimentally obtained coefficients,... [Pg.139]

From the spectrum of Fig. 28 one obtains a r = 0.0017 cm. With the aid of the MO treatment of Maki and McGarvey (155), these data can be used to obtain coefficients of the d-orbitals of the unpaired electi on centered at the copper nucleus and the value of k. One finds... [Pg.98]

In addition, to quantify the analogy between different log SP values, we developed an approach where the obtained coefficients are used as a five-dimensional vector and the analogy is expressed as an angle between two target vectors (51). [Pg.76]

Solve magnetic CPKS equations to obtain [/-coefficients (Eqs. 55 and 57). [Pg.70]

Since a number of particles involved in any reaction event are small, a change in concentration is of the order of 1 /V. Therefore, we can use for the system with complete particle mixing the asymptotic expansion in this small parameter 1 /V. The corresponding van Kampen [73, 74] procedure (see also [27, 75]) permits us to formulate simple rules for deriving the Fokker-Planck or stochastic differential equations, asymptotically equivalent to the initial master equation (2.2.37). It allows us also to obtain coefficients Gij in the stochastic differential equation (2.2.2) thus liquidating their uncertainty and strengthening the relation between the deterministic description of motion and density fluctuations. [Pg.107]

Upon solving for E, we substitute E into the following secular equations to obtain coefficient c and cn ... [Pg.86]

Use the nonhomogeneous boundary condition And orthogonality principle of eigenfunctions To obtain coefficient accompanying expansion Hence temperature T has a final expression. [Pg.82]

Einstein obtained coefficients for induced absorption B , induced emission Bu i, and spontaneous emission Au, of light by the following thermodynamic arguments, based on Arrhenius 116 law. [Pg.216]

Related Calculations. This illustration outlines the procedure for obtaining coefficients of a liquid-phase activity-coefficient model from mutual solubility data of partially miscible systems. Use of such models to calculate activity coefficients and to make phase-equilibrium calculations is discussed in Section 3. This leads to estimates of phase compositions in liquid-liquid systems from limited experimental data. At ordinary temperature and pressure, it is simple to obtain experimentally the composition of two coexisting phases, and the technical literature is rich in experimental results for a large variety of binary and ternary systems near 25°C (77°F) and atmospheric pressure. Example 1.21 shows how to apply the same procedure with vapor-liquid equilibrium data. [Pg.47]

Terms were deleted from the regression equation until an equation containing only terms having a confidence level of greater than 80% to improve fit (in terms of sum of squares error) was obtained. Coefficients (di s) for the resulting simplified equations are summarized in Table II with an estimate of fit. [Pg.164]

Now it is very simple to obtain coefficients Pq and Pj as the Cramer solution of system (5.39). The following expressions for Pq and Pj are thus obtained ... [Pg.354]

Standard Method 2540C determines total dissolved solids (IDS) by filtering a water sample through glass fiber disks, then drying the sample at 180 °C for 1 h. The sample is cooled in a dessicator and weighed, then redried at 180 °C. This process is repeated until a constant weight is obtained. Coefficient of variation of test values is 7%. [Pg.264]

The dispersion relation of (2.94) can be extracted if either or n is eliminated from (2.95). To obtain coefficients and, the maximum dispersion error will be initially expanded in a rapidly convergent series as a function of propagation angles 9 and ip and then its dominant terms will be set to zero. Hence, the coefficients, so computed, minimize the maximum dispersion error at all angles in completely adjustable way. [Pg.40]

Since the dependence pPMe0 - T agrees with these criteria, it is most expedient to attribute the derivative to a point from the central part of the 600-700 °C segment, i.e. 650 °C (923 K). The values of relative thermal coefficients of solubility obtained using the Le Chatelier-Shreder equation and the experimentally obtained coefficients are collected in Table 3.7.12. [Pg.300]

The generalization in the Cooper correlation in terms of the square root of molecular weight (M) is an oversimplification, and considerable errors can sometimes be encountered. It is therefore recommended that an alternative form of reduced pressure correlation developed by Gorenflo and coworkers [116-119] should be used. In its original form [116,117], the correlation related the heat transfer coefficient h to its value h at standard conditions of pressure (P, = 0.1), surface roughness (Rpo = 0.4 pm), and heat flux (q" = 20,000 W/m2). Values of h were tabulated for a wide range of fluids for instance, for butane h = 3600 and for water h = 5600. To obtain coefficients at other conditions, the following equation is used ... [Pg.1037]

It is obvious, that the macromolecular coil fractal dimension D, which can be changed, for example, by solvent, type of pol mier variation, so forth, is one more factor, influencing on flocculation process effectiveness. Thus, from the Eq. (142) it follows, that the value c can be maintained on previous level by A4Mvariation atZ) change. The authors [181] compared this possibility for PDMDAAC in two solvents water and NaCl water solutions (the value D= AA and 1.65, respectively) and obtained coefficient k, which shows, in how many times a polymer MVf should be reduced at transition from Z) =1.65 to D=IA4 for the previous value preservation. The dependence of on MV/is adduced in Fig. 78, from which the strong dependence of c on a macromolecular coil fractal dimension follows or, in other words, on coil accessibility degree to particles penetration. Thus, at... [Pg.179]

Due to characteristic surface properties, PP is a very difficult material to metallize. Ideal for that pnirpose is the magnetron sputtering method described in papers (Ziaja Jaroszewski, 2011 Ziaja et al., 2010 Ziaja et al., 2008). Obtained coefficients of shielding effectiveness (SE) of popular composites based on PP/Me matrixes exceed up to 60dB (Me=Zn SE exceeds 60 dB, Me=Cu SE approx. 35 dB, Ti approx. 30 dB). [Pg.318]

Water vapor diffusion coefficients as functions of time are shown in Fig, 8. Values obtained from (2), (3), and (4) are all shown for comparison. Due to the scatter obtained, coefficients resulting from (2) are shown as a band of values rather than a single curve. Such a coefficient should be a function of the partial pressure gradient across the diffusional boundary layer. However, under the ambient conditions existing during this study, this quantity was essentially constant, and no partial pressure relationship was determined. However, the effect of boundary layer condensation without subsequent adherence to the container surface is illustrated by the data shown in Fig. 8. Equations (2), (3) and (4) pro-... [Pg.505]

Choose Wj = Ci j. If we sum over the loop constraints, we obtain coefficients that indicate the number of loops that are broken by a tear stream j. Breaking a loop more than once causes a delay in the tear variable iteration for the fixed-point algorithms and much poorer performance. By minimizing the number of multiple broken loops, we seek a nonredundant set of tear equations for better performance. [Pg.319]

Plan To write a balanced equation, we first have to determine the formulas of the molecules and obtain coefficients by counting the number of each molecule. Then, we arrange this information in the correct equation format, using the smallest whole-number coefficients and including states of matter. [Pg.89]

By using the obtained coefficients, a variety of dynamical properties can be calculated. The population dynamics p,-, t) on the ith site (i.e. wavepacket... [Pg.326]

With regard to the imperfection of gases, we are limited to the forces between two molecules only (two body forces) which give the expressions of the second coefficient of the virial. Researchers have endeavored to calculate the third, fourth and fifth coefficient of the virial. Here the three body forces are involved for the third coefficient, four body forces for the fourth and compact packing of spheres for the fifth coefficient. As for the second coefficient, the authors initially stuck to the hard-sphere model without attraction force (see section 7.3.3.1 and Figure 7.6), and as in the case of the second coefficient, they obtained coefficients practically independent of temperature, which allowed Hirshfelder and Roseveare to propose a state equation in the form ... [Pg.205]

Although there are equal numbers of atoms in the reactants and in the products, this is not balanced correctly. To obtain coefficients that are the lowest whole numbers, we divide all the coefficients by 2. [Pg.245]

The third reaction has H2(g) as a reactant. In the reaction of interest, however, H2(g) is a product. Therefore, we reverse the equation and change the sign of AH. In addition, to obtain coefficients that match the reaction of interest, and to cancel O2, we must multiply the reaction and AH by Va-... [Pg.272]

X-ray diffraction studies are conducted at low temperatures to observe phase transitions to investigate materials which would be liquids or gases under standard conditions to obtain coefficients of thermal expansion and to obtain better atomic positional parameters through increased quantity of diffraction data and improved intensity measurements afforded by lessening of thermal vibrations. [Pg.469]

** How Can Temperature Coefficients of Reversible Cells Be Used to Obtain Ionic Entropies **

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