For a vapor phase (superscript V) and a liquid phase (superscript L), at the same temperature, the equation of equilibrium [Pg.14]

While vapor-phase corrections may be small for nonpolar molecules at low pressure, such corrections are usually not negligible for mixtures containing polar molecules. Vapor-phase corrections are extremely important for mixtures containing one or more carboxylic acids. [Pg.38]

In vapor-liquid equilibria, if one phase composition is given, there are basically four types of problems, characterized by those variables which are specified and those which are to be calculated. Let T stand for temperature, P for total pressure, for the mole fraction of component i in the liquid phase, and y for the mole fraction of component i in the vapor phase. For a mixture containing m components, the four types can be organized in this way [Pg.3]

Cases 3 and 4 show strong vapor-phase nonidealities as well. [Pg.122]

Figure 7-1. Incipient equilibrium vapor-phase compositions calculated with subroutine BUDET. |

The fugacity fT of a component i in the vapor phase is related to its mole fraction y in the vapor phase and the total pressure P by the fugacity coefficient [Pg.26]

Conclusion Effect of Independent Variables on Vapor-Phase Nonideality [Pg.37]

As discussed in Chapter 3, at moderate pressures, vapor-phase nonideality is usually small in comparison to liquid-phase nonideality. However, when associating carboxylic acids are present, vapor-phase nonideality may dominate. These acids dimerize appreciably in the vapor phase even at low pressures fugacity coefficients are well removed from unity. To illustrate. Figures 8 and 9 show observed and calculated vapor-liquid equilibria for two systems containing an associating component. [Pg.51]

Figure 4-9. Vapor-liquid equilibria for a binary system where one component dimerizes in the vapor phase. Activity coefficients show only small deviations from liquid-phase ideality. |

At low pressures, it is often permissible to neglect nonidealities of the vapor phase. If these nonidealities are not negligible, they can have the effect of introducing a nonrandom trend into the plotted residuals similar to that introduced by systematic error. Experience here has shown that application of vapor-phase corrections for nonidealities gives a better representation of the data by the model, oven when these corrections [Pg.106]

This chapter presents quantitative methods for calculation of enthalpies of vapor-phase and liquid-phase mixtures. These methods rely primarily on pure-component data, in particular ideal-vapor heat capacities and vapor-pressure data, both as functions of temperature. Vapor-phase corrections for nonideality are usually relatively small. Liquid-phase excess enthalpies are also usually not important. As indicated in Chapter 4, for mixtures containing noncondensable components, we restrict attention to liquid solutions which are dilute with respect to all noncondensable components. [Pg.93]

In the calculation of vapor-liquid equilibria, it is necessary to calculate separately the fugacity of each component in each of the two phases. The liquid and vapor phases require different techniques in this chapter we consider calculations for the vapor phase. [Pg.25]

The detailed techniques presented here are based on particular models for the vapor phase (Hayden-O Connell) and for the liquid phase (UNIQUAC). However, our discussion of these techniques is sufficiently general to allow the use of other models, whenever the user prefers to do so. [Pg.2]

The fugacity coefficient is a function of temperature, total pressure, and composition of the vapor phase it can be calculated from volumetric data for the vapor mixture. For a mixture containing m components, such data are often expressed in the form of an equation of state explicit in the pressure [Pg.26]

Equation (12), applicable at low or moderate pressures, is used in this monograph for typical vapor mixtures. However, when the vapor phase contains a strongly dimerizing component such as carboxylic acid. Equation (7) is not applicable and [Pg.16]

Figure 13 presents results for a binary where one of the components is a supercritical, noncondensable component. Vapor-phase fugacity coefficients were calculated with the virial [Pg.59]

Figure 3 presents results for acetic acid(1)-water(2) at 1 atm. In this case deviations from ideality are important for the vapor phase as well as the liquid phase. For the vapor phase, calculations are based on the chemical theory of vapor-phase imperfections, as discussed in Chapter 3. Calculated results are in good agreement with similar calculations reported by Lemlich et al. (1957). [Pg.91]

Using UNIQUAC, Table 2 summarizes vapor-liquid equilibrium predictions for several representative ternary mixtures and one quaternary mixture. Agreement is good between calculated and experimental pressures (or temperatures) and vapor-phase compositions. [Pg.53]

In Equation (24), a is the estimated standard deviation for each of the measured variables, i.e. pressure, temperature, and liquid-phase and vapor-phase compositions. The values assigned to a determine the relative weighting between the tieline data and the vapor-liquid equilibrium data this weighting determines how well the ternary system is represented. This weighting depends first, on the estimated accuracy of the ternary data, relative to that of the binary vapor-liquid data and second, on how remote the temperature of the binary data is from that of the ternary data and finally, on how important in a design the liquid-liquid equilibria are relative to the vapor-liquid equilibria. Typical values which we use in data reduction are Op = 1 mm Hg, = 0.05°C, = 0.001, and = 0.003 [Pg.68]

The computation of pure-component and mixture enthalpies is implemented by FORTRAN IV subroutine ENTH, which evaluates the liquid- or vapor-phase molar enthalpy for a system of up to 20 components at specified temperature, pressure, and composition. The enthalpies calculated are in J/mol referred to the ideal gas at 300°K. Liquid enthalpies can be determined either with [Pg.93]

The calculation of vapor and liquid fugacities in multi-component systems has been implemented by a set of computer programs in the form of FORTRAN IV subroutines. These are applicable to systems of up to twenty components, and operate on a thermodynamic data base including parameters for 92 compounds. The set includes subroutines for evaluation of vapor-phase fugacity [Pg.5]

The method proposed in this monograph has a firm thermodynamic basis. For vapo/-liquid equilibria, the method may be used at low or moderate pressures commonly encountered in separation operations since vapor-phase nonidealities are taken into account. For liquid-liquid equilibria the effect of pressure is usually not important unless the pressure is very large or unless conditions are near the vapor-liquid critical region. [Pg.2]

The sum of the squared differences between calculated and measures pressures is minimized as a function of model parameters. This method, often called Barker s method (Barker, 1953), ignores information contained in vapor-phase mole fraction measurements such information is normally only used for consistency tests, as discussed by Van Ness et al. (1973). Nevertheless, when high-quality experimental data are available. Barker s method often gives excellent results (Abbott and Van Ness, 1975). [Pg.97]

Equation (1) is of little practical use unless the fuga-cities can be related to the experimentally accessible quantities X, y, T, and P, where x stands for the composition (expressed in mole fraction) of the liquid phase, y for the composition (also expressed in mole fraction) of the vapor phase, T for the absolute temperature, and P for the total pressure, assumed to be the same for both phases. The desired relationship between fugacities and experimentally accessible quantities is facilitated by two auxiliary functions which are given the symbols (f [Pg.14]

In Chapter 2 we discuss briefly the thermodynamic functions whereby the abstract fugacities are related to the measurable, real quantities temperature, pressure, and composition. This formulation is then given more completely in Chapters 3 and 4, which present detailed material on vapor-phase and liquid-phase fugacities, respectively. [Pg.5]

Convergence is usually accomplished in 2 to 4 iterations. For example, an average of 2.6 iterations was required for 9 bubble-point-temperature calculations over the complete composition range for the azeotropic system ehtanol-ethyl acetate. Standard initial estimates were used. Figure 1 shows results for the incipient vapor-phase compositions together with the experimental data of Murti and van Winkle (1958). For this case, calculated bubble-point temperatures were never more than 0.4 K from observed values. [Pg.120]

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