Two approaches to quantify/fQ, i.e., to establish a quantitative relationship between the structural features of a compoimd and its properties, are described in this section quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPR) and linear free energy relationships (LFER) cf. Section 3.4.2.2). The LFER approach is important for historical reasons because it contributed the first attempt to predict the property of a compound from an analysis of its structure. LFERs can be established only for congeneric series of compounds, i.e., sets of compounds that share the same skeleton and only have variations in the substituents attached to this skeleton. As examples of a QSPR approach, currently available methods for the prediction of the octanol/water partition coefficient, log P, and of aqueous solubility, log S, of organic compoimds are described in Section 10.1.4 and Section 10.15, respectively. [Pg.488]

A balanced chemical reaction indicates the quantitative relationships between the moles of reactants and products. These stoichiometric relationships provide the basis for many analytical calculations. Consider, for example, the problem of determining the amount of oxalic acid, H2C2O4, in rhubarb. One method for this analysis uses the following reaction in which we oxidize oxalic acid to CO2. [Pg.20]

Quantitative Calculations In acid-base titrimetry the quantitative relationship between the analyte and the titrant is determined by the stoichiometry of the relevant reactions. As outlined in Section 2C, stoichiometric calculations may be simplified by focusing on appropriate conservation principles. In an acid-base reaction the number of protons transferred between the acid and base is conserved thus... [Pg.304]

To develop a more quantitative relationship between particle size and T j, suppose we consider the melting behavior of the cylindrical crystal sketched in Fig. 4.4. Of particular interest in this model is the role played by surface effects. The illustration is used to define a model and should not be taken too literally, especially with respect to the following points ... [Pg.212]

To develop this model into a quantitative relationship between T j, and the thickness of the crystal, we begin by realizing that for the transition crystal liquid, AG is the sum of two contributions. One of these is AG , which applies to the case of a crystal of infinite (superscript °o) size the other AG arises specifically from surface (superscript s) effects which reflect the finite size of the crystal ... [Pg.213]

What we seek next is a quantitative relationship between the extent of the polymerization reaction, the composition of the monomer mixture, and the point of gelation. We shall base our discussion on the system described by reaction (5.U) other cases are derived by similar methods. To further specify the system we assume that A groups limit the reaction and that B groups are present in excess. Two parameters are necessary to characterize the reaction mixture ... [Pg.315]

The quantitative relationship between the degree of adsorption at a solution iaterface (7), G—L or L—L, and the lowering of the free-surface energy can be deduced by usiag an approximate form of the Gibbs adsorption isotherm (eq. 9), which is appHcable to dilute biaary solutions where the activity coefficient is unity and the radius of curvature of the surface is not too great ... [Pg.236]

Dose—response evaluation is used in describing the quantitative relationship between the amount of exposure to a substance and the extent of toxic injury or disease. Data may be derived from animal studies or from studies in exposed human populations. Dose—response toxicity relationship for a substance varies under different exposure conditions. The risk of a substance can not be ascertained with any degree of confidence unless... [Pg.226]

Many different approaches to QSAR have been developed since Hansch s seminal work. These include both two-dimensional (2D) and 3D QSAR methods. The major differences among these methods can be analyzed from two viewpoints (1) the strucmral parameters that are used to characterize molecular identities and (2) the mathematical procedure that is employed to obtain the quantitative relationship between a biological activity and the structural parameters. [Pg.359]

The goal of a kinetic study is to establish the quantitative relationship between the concentration of reactants and catalysts and the rate of the reaction. Typically, such a study involves rate measurements at enough different concentrations of each reactant so that the kinetic order with respect to each reactant can be assessed. A complete investigation allows the reaction to be described by a rate law, which is an algebraic expression containing one or more rate constants as well as the concentrations of all reactants that are involved in the rate-determining step and steps prior to the rate-determining step. Each concentration has an exponent, which is the order of the reaction with respect to that component. The overall kinetic order of the reaction is the sum of all the exponents in the... [Pg.192]

Dispersion equations, typically the van Deemter equation (2), have been often applied to the TLC plate. Qualitatively, this use of dispersion equations derived for GC and LC can be useful, but any quantitative relationship between such equations and the actual thin layer plate are likely to be fraught with en or. In general, there will be the three similar dispersion terms representing the main sources of spot dispersion, namely, multipath dispersion, longitudinal diffusion and dispersion due to resistance to mass transfer between the two phases. [Pg.452]

Assuming the work of adhesion to be measurable, one must next ask if it can be related to practical adhesion. If so, it may be a useful predictor of adhesion. The prospect at first looks bleak. The perfect disjoining of phases contemplated by Eq. 1 almost never occurs, and it takes no account of the existence of an interphase , as discussed earlier. Nonetheless, modeling the complex real interphase as a true mathematical interface has led to quantitative relationships between mechanical quantities and the work of adhesion. For example, Cox [22] suggested a linear relationship between Wa and the interfacial shear strength, r, in a fiber-matrix composite as follows ... [Pg.10]

Dose-Response Cune A graphical representation of the quantitative relationship between the administered, applied, or internal dose of a chemical or agent, and a specific biological response to that chemical or agent. [Pg.317]

Although there is no simple quantitative relationship between the stability of a carbocation intermediate and the rate of its formation, there is an intuitive relationship. It s generally true when comparing two similar reactions that the more stable intermediate forms faster than the less stable one. The situation is shown graphically in Figure 6.13, where the reaction energy profile in part (a) represents the typical situation rather than the profile in part (b). That is, the curves for two similar reactions don t cross one another. [Pg.197]

One of the most important parameters that defines the structure and stability of inorganic crystals is their stoichiometry - the quantitative relationship between the anions and the cations [134]. Oxygen and fluorine ions, O2 and F, have very similar ionic radii of 1.36 and 1.33 A, respectively. The steric similarity enables isomorphic substitution of oxygen and fluorine ions in the anionic sub-lattice as well as the combination of complex fluoride, oxyfluoride and some oxide compounds in the same system. On the other hand, tantalum or niobium, which are the central atoms in the fluoride and oxyfluoride complexes, have identical ionic radii equal to 0.66 A. Several other cations of transition metals are also sterically similar or even identical to tantalum and niobium, which allows for certain isomorphic substitutions in the cation sublattice. [Pg.59]

In Chapter 1 we saw that the Boltzmann equation S = k log W gives the same qualitative relationship between entropy and disorder and suggested that a fundamental property of entropy is a measure of the disorder in a system. In Chapter 10 we will explore this relationship in more detail on the molecular level, and use the Boltzmann expression to develop quantitative relationships between entropy and disorder. [Pg.90]

Within the context of this book the quantitative relationships between structure and chemical reactivity are very informative. One of the early postulates of Ingold and his school in the 1930s (review see Ingold, 1969, p. 78) was that the electronic effects of substituents are composed of two main parts a field/inductive component and a mesomeric component. Hammett s work indicated clearly from the beginning that his substituent constants am and crp reflect Ingold s postulate in numerical terms. In particular, many observations indicated that the /7-substituent constant ap is the sum of a field/inductive component 0 and a resonance (mesomeric) component (Jr. [Pg.149]

In carbon, an uncertainty exists which arises because we have neither sufficient empirical data nor an accepted theoretical model to explain the quantitative relationships between dietary carbon isotope signals and those... [Pg.46]

Any quantitative relationship between body isotopic composition and... [Pg.214]

Dose-Response Relationship—The quantitative relationship between the amount of exposure to a toxicant and the incidence of the adverse effects. [Pg.242]

The final physical properties of thermoset polymers depend primarily on the network structure that is developed during cure. Development of improved thermosets has been hampered by the lack of quantitative relationships between polymer variables and final physical properties. The development of a mathematical relationship between formulation and final cure properties is a formidable task requiring detailed characterization of the polymer components, an understanding of the cure chemistry and a model of the cure kinetics, determination of cure process variables (air temperature, heat transfer etc.), a relationship between cure chemistry and network structure, and the existence of a network structure parameter that correlates with physical properties. The lack of availability of easy-to-use network structure models which are applicable to the complex crosslinking systems typical of "real-world" thermosets makes it difficult to develop such correlations. [Pg.190]

Although many experiments have been performed, quantitative relationships between mechanical loads and bone adaptation do not yet exist. In vivo strain gauge studies have found a remarkable similarity of peak surface strains -2000 p.e at the midshaft of different bones across different animals at maximum activity. Measuring strains in adaptation studies would allow us to relate in vivo load changes to altered surface strains to adapted bone mass and strength. [Pg.120]

The attempt to classify biological activities upon the basis of their velocities as affected by temperature involves for a number of cases the adjustment of curves to data inevitably subject to several sources of variation. One of these arises from the fact that the measurements may be secured with different individuals at each of several temperatures. The latitude of variation in series of data obtained in this way may be large, and unless great numbers of observations are available interpretation may be difficult. Indication already obtained as to the theoretical significance of the exact quantitative relationship between velocity of a vital process and temperatme make it desirable to demonstrate the limits of variation in material which is as nearly as possible biologically homogeneous. [Pg.3]

The derivation of the quantitative relationship between this equilibrium temperature and the composition of the liquid phase may be carried out according to the well-known thermodynamic procedures for treating the depression of the melting point and for deriving solubility-temperature relations. The condition of equilibrium between crystalline polymer and the polymer unit in the solution may be restated as follows ... [Pg.568]

Stoichiometry is the study of quantitative relationships between amounts of —... [Pg.24]

In this part we dwell on the properties of the simplest radicals and atoms in the adsorbed layer of oxide semiconductors as well as analyse the quantitative relationships between concentrations of these particles both in gaseous and liquid phases and on oxide surfaces (mostly for ZnO), and effect of former parameters on electrophysical parameters. Note that describing these properties we pursue only one principal objective, i. e. to prove the existence of a reliable physical and physical-chemical basis for a further development and application of semiconductor sensors in systems and processes which involve active particles emerging on the surface either as short-lived intermediate formations, or are emitted as free particles from the surface into the environment (heterogeno-homogeneous processes). [Pg.194]

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