Specific heat of each species is assumed to be the function of temperature by using JANAF [7]. Transport coefficients for the mixture gas such as viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion coefficient are calculated by using the approximation formula based on the kinetic theory of gas [8]. As for the initial condition, a mixture is quiescent and its temperature and pressure are 300 K and 0.1 MPa, respectively. [Pg.27]

K. S. Spiegler (164) has shown the way in which it is possible to calculate friction coefficients from a series of different transport phenomena. For the system membrane-sodiumchloride solution he determined the selfdiffusion coefficient of sodium ions and chloride ions, the electro-osmotic watertransport number, the specific conductance of the membrane and the transportnumber of the sodium ions in the membrane. Neglecting the interaction between counter ions and co-ions in the membrane he could calculate the friction-coefficients Q1Z, Qlt, D23, f z4 and QZi with the aid of formulae (11)—(15). [Pg.344]

As we have not considered specific models for the channel wall vibrations, we do not provide numbers for this transfer rate constant at this time. The transfer constant can be related to a transport coefficient and thence to the conductivity of the ion in the channel. It... [Pg.102]

ELDAR contains data for more than 2000 electrolytes in more than 750 different solvents with a total of 56,000 chemical systems, 15,000 hterature references, 45,730 data tables, and 595,000 data points. ELDAR contains data on physical properties such as densities, dielectric coefficients, thermal expansion, compressibihty, p-V-T data, state diagrams and critical data. The thermodynamic properties include solvation and dilution heats, phase transition values (enthalpies, entropies and Gibbs free energies), phase equilibrium data, solubilities, vapor pressures, solvation data, standard and reference values, activities and activity coefficients, excess values, osmotic coefficients, specific heats, partial molar values and apparent partial molar values. Transport properties such as electrical conductivities, transference numbers, single ion conductivities, viscosities, thermal conductivities, and diffusion coefficients are also included. [Pg.292]

Here j is the current density, or equivalently, the charge flux. The electric field E, which is the gradient of the potential p, provides the driving force for conduction. The transport coefficient a is the specific conductivity, expressed in ohm m"k While (3.1) may appear unfamiliar, it reduces to the common expression I — VjR in the special case of conduction in a wire of uniform cross section (see Problem 3.1). [Pg.50]

To relate the transport coefficient a to the properties of the solvated species requires recognizing that even pure solvent contains some ions. Thus, the results of conductivity measurements are corrected for the specific conductivity of the cell in the absence of electrolyte, the conductivity attributed to electrolyte is then... [Pg.51]

TABLE 3.7 Transport Properties of Solvents at 25°C their Specific Conductance k [1], their Self-diffusion Coefficient D [27], their Dynamic Viscosity tj, and its Temperature Derivative (<9j//oT) ... [Pg.76]

The multitude of transport coefficients collected can thus be divided into self-diffusion types (total or partial conductivities and mobilities obtained from equilibrium electrical measurements, ambipolar or self-diffusion data from steady state flux measurements through membranes), tracer-diffusivities, and chemical diffusivities from transient measurements. All but the last are fairly easily interrelated through definitions, the Nemst-Einstein relation, and the correlation factor. However, we need to look more closely at the chemical diffusion coefficient. We will do this next by a specific example, namely within the framework of oxygen ion and electron transport that we have restricted ourselves to at this stage. [Pg.179]

Using the subsequent first-order perturbation solution for ft, the stress tensor and heat-flux vector in the gas can be evaluated explicitly in terms of F, A and B, and thus the transport coefficients, which are the proportionality factors in the phenomenological constitutive equations for the gas, may be determined. It turns out that F is related only to the bulk viscosity of the gas, A to the thermal conductivity and B to the viscosity. Specifically the bulk viscosity is given by... [Pg.34]

The class of electronic conductors, where the ion transport number is zero or negligibly small, comprises metals, semiconductors and -> dielectrics. Metals are characterized by a high conductivity level (>10 -10 S m ) and a negative temperature coefficient. Semiconductors exhibit a lower specific conductivity (10" -10 Sm ) and, typically, temperature-activated transport. [Pg.111]

Furthermore, the relationships between the transport coefficients have become evident, enabling an interpretation in the atomistic picture. Rate constants of the hopping process, mobility and the diffusion coefficient of the hopping particle (point defect) are closely related parameters. Equation (6.35) emphasizes the importance of the specific conductivity as a transport parameter, which extends beyond its role as a valuable measurement parameter and an electrical material property. Equation (6.32) demonstrates that (close to equilibrium) it is proportional to the equilibrium concentration of the defect under consideration and its mobility. The proportionality to S was exploited extensively in Chapter 5 for experimental verification of defect chemistry. [Pg.283]

Silver sulfide, when pure, conducts electricity like a metal of high specific resistance, yet it has a zero temperature coefficient. This metallic conduction is beheved to result from a few silver ions existing in the divalent state, and thus providing free electrons to transport current. The use of silver sulfide as a soHd electrolyte in batteries has been described (57). [Pg.92]

In Fig. 1, various elements involved with the development of detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms are illustrated. Generally, the objective of this effort is to predict macroscopic phenomena, e.g., species concentration profiles and heat release in a chemical reactor, from the knowledge of fundamental chemical and physical parameters, together with a mathematical model of the process. Some of the fundamental chemical parameters of interest are the thermochemistry of species, i.e., standard state heats of formation (A//f(To)), and absolute entropies (S(Tq)), and temperature-dependent specific heats (Cp(7)), and the rate parameter constants A, n, and E, for the associated elementary reactions (see Eq. (1)). As noted above, evaluated compilations exist for the determination of these parameters. Fundamental physical parameters of interest may be the Lennard-Jones parameters (e/ic, c), dipole moments (fi), polarizabilities (a), and rotational relaxation numbers (z ,) that are necessary for the calculation of transport parameters such as the viscosity (fx) and the thermal conductivity (k) of the mixture and species diffusion coefficients (Dij). These data, together with their associated uncertainties, are then used in modeling the macroscopic behavior of the chemically reacting system. The model is then subjected to sensitivity analysis to identify its elements that are most important in influencing predictions. [Pg.99]

In this text we are concerned exclusively with laminar flows that is, we do not discuss turbulent flow. However, we are concerned with the complexities of multicomponent molecular transport of mass, momentum, and energy by diffusive processes, especially in gas mixtures. Accordingly we introduce the kinetic-theory formalism required to determine mixture viscosity and thermal conductivity, as well as multicomponent ordinary and thermal diffusion coefficients. Perhaps it should be noted in passing that certain laminar, strained, flames are developed and studied specifically because of the insight they offer for understanding turbulent flame environments. [Pg.5]

In addition to the equation of state, it will be necessary to describe other thermodynamic properties of the fluid. These include specific heat, enthalpy, entropy, and free energy. For ideal gases the thermodynamic properties usually depend on temperature and mixture composition, with very little pressure dependence. Most descriptions of fluid behavior also depend on transport properties, including viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion coefficients. These properties generally depend on temperature, pressure, and mixture composition. [Pg.12]

Here, L is the length of the electrode, a the conductivity, D the diffusion coefficient of species c and Co the specific capacity of the electrode, d is a measure of the ratio of the characteristic rates of the diffusion of species c and migration, d > 1 means that the characteristic time of migration is shorter than that of diffusion, or, in other words, that the transport process associated with the inhibitor is faster than the one associated with the activator. [Pg.191]

When the transportation of natural gas in a pipeline Is not feasible for economic or other reasons, it is first liquefied at about 160°C, and then transported in specially insulated tanks placed in marine ships. Consider a 4-ni-diame(er spher ical tank that is filled with liquefied natural gas (LNG) at - 160 C. The lank is exposed to ambient air at 24°C with a heat transfer coefficient of 22 W/m °C. The tank is thin shelled and its temperature can be taken to be the same as the J.NG temperature. The tank is insulated with 5-cm-lhick super insulation that has an effective thermal conductivity of 0.00008 W/in °C. Taking the density and the specific heat of LNG to be 425 kg/m and 3.475 kJ/kg C, respectively, estimate how long it will take for the LN G temperature to rise to -ISO C. [Pg.230]

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