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** Multidimensional systems semiclassical method **

Direct dynamics attempts to break this bottleneck in the study of MD, retaining the accuracy of the full electronic PES without the need for an analytic fit of data. The first studies in this field used semiclassical methods with semiempirical [66,67] or simple Hartree-Fock [68] wave functions to heat the electrons. These first studies used what is called BO dynamics, evaluating the PES at each step from the elech onic wave function obtained by solution of the electronic structure problem. An alternative, the Ehrenfest dynamics method, is to propagate the electronic wave function at the same time as the nuclei. Although early direct dynamics studies using this method [69-71] restricted themselves to adiabatic problems, the method can incorporate non-adiabatic effects directly in the electionic wave function. [Pg.255]

The standard semiclassical methods are surface hopping and Ehrenfest dynamics (also known as the classical path (CP) method [197]), and they will be outlined below. More details and comparisons can be found in [30-32]. The multiple spawning method, based on Gaussian wavepacket propagation, is also outlined below. See [1] for further infomiation on both quantum and semiclassical non-adiabatic dynamics methods. [Pg.290]

This simulation performed on the borderline of up-to-date computational capabilities is beyond the framework of the semiclassical approximation, since A is comparable with coq. As far as real systems are concerned, such simulations are often hardly feasible for higher barriers and more degrees of freedom. On the other hand, as tests show (see section 4.1 and sequel), semiclassical methods cost incomparably less, being at the same time quite accurate, even when the barrier is not too high. [Pg.98]

For example, the ZN theory, which overcomes all the defects of the Landau-Zener-Stueckelberg theory, can be incorporated into various simulation methods in order to clarify the mechanisms of dynamics in realistic molecular systems. Since the nonadiabatic coupling is a vector and thus we can always determine the relevant one-dimensional (ID) direction of the transition in multidimensional space, the 1D ZN theory can be usefully utilized. Furthermore, the comprehension of reaction mechanisms can be deepened, since the formulas are given in simple analytical expressions. Since it is not feasible to treat realistic large systems fully quantum mechanically, it would be appropriate to incorporate the ZN theory into some kind of semiclassical methods. The promising semiclassical methods are (1) the initial value... [Pg.96]

Allison TC, Trahlar DG (1998) Testing the accuracy of practical semiclassical methods variational transition state theory with optimized multidimensional tunnelling. In Thompson DL (ed) Modern Methods for Multidimensional Dynamics Computations in Chemistry. World Scientific, Singapore, p 618... [Pg.135]

This formalism was originally devised for single ionization of ground-state atoms, but has now been successfully applied to the calculation of electron impact ionization cross sections for a range of molecules, radicals, clusters, and excited state atoms. Like many of the semiempirical and semiclassical methods used to describe the electron impact process, the theory has its roots in work carried out by J.J. Thomson, who used classical mechanics to derive an expression for the atomic electron impact ionization cross section,2... [Pg.329]

For larger systems, various approximate schemes have been developed, called mixed methods as they treat parts of the system using different levels of theory. Of interest to us here are quantum-semiclassical methods, which use full quantum mechanics to treat the electrons, but use approximations based on trajectories in a classical phase space to describe the nuclear motion. The prefix quantum may be dropped, and we will talk of semiclassical methods. There are a number of different approaches, but here we shall concentrate on the few that are suitable for direct dynamics molecular simulations. An overview of other methods is given in the introduction of [21]. [Pg.357]

How well do these quantum-semiclassical methods work in describing the dynamics of non-adiabatic systems There are two sources of errors, one due to the approximations in the methods themselves, and the other due to errors in their application, for example, lack of convergence. For example, an obvious source of error in surface hopping and Ehrenfest dynamics is that coherence effects due to the phases of the nuclear wavepackets on the different surfaces are not included. This information is important for the description of short-time (few femtoseconds) quantum mechanical effects. For longer timescales, however, this loss of information should be less of a problem as dephasing washes out this information. Note that surface hopping should be run in an adiabatic representation, whereas the other methods show no preference for diabatic or adiabatic. [Pg.403]

Muller and Stock [227] used the vibronic coupling model Hamiltonian, Section III.D, to compare surface hopping and Ehrenfest dynamics with exact calculations for a number of model cases. The results again show that the semiclassical methods are able to provide a qualitative, if not quantitative, description of the dynamics. A large-scale comparison of mixed method and quantum dynamics has been made in a study of the pyrazine absorption spectrum, including all 24 degrees of freedom [228]. Here a method related to Ehrenfest dynamics was used with reasonable success, showing that these methods are indeed able to reproduce the main features of the dynamics of non-adiabatic molecular systems. [Pg.404]

nonadiabatic dynamics discussed so far have used the simple quasi-classical approximation (16) to describe the dynamics of the nuclear degrees of freedom. As a consequence, these methods are in general not able to account for processes or observables for which quantum effects of the nuclear degrees of freedom are important. Such processes include nuclear tunneling, interference effects in wave-packet dynamics, and the conservation of zero-point energy. In contrast to quasi-classical approximations, semiclassical methods take into account the phase exp iSi/h) of a classical trajectory and are therefore capable—at least in principle—of describing quantum effects. [Pg.340]

A semiclassical description is well established when both the Hamilton operator of the system and the quantity to be calculated have a well-defined classical analog. For example, there exist several semiclassical methods for calculating the vibrational autocorrelation function on a single excited electronic surface, the Fourier transform of which yields the Franck-Condon spectmm [108, 109, 150, 244]. In particular, semiclassical methods based on the initial-value representation of the semiclassical propagator [104-111, 245-248], which circumvent the cumbersome root-search problem in boundary-value-based semiclassical methods, have been successfully applied to a variety of systems (see, for example, Refs. 110, 111, 161, and 249 and references therein). The mapping procedure introduced in Section VI results in a quantum-mechanical Hamiltonian with a well-defined classical limit, and therefore it... [Pg.340]

S2 conical intersection in pyrazine as well as several spin-boson models, we discuss advantages and problems of this semiclassical method. [Pg.341]

As a consequence, the semiclassical propagator is given as a phase-space integral over the initial conditions qo and Po, which is amenable to a Monte Carlo evaluation. For this reason, semiclassical initial-value representations are regarded as the key to the application of semiclassical methods to multidimensional systems. [Pg.342]

Semiclassical methods from quantum mechanics with first-order relativistic corrections obtained from the Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation match with the weak relativistic limit of functionals obtained from quantum electrodynamics, neglecting the (spurious) Darwin terms. [Pg.208]

In addition to the energy value, it is interesting to evaluate the expectation values mentioned above by means of TF and it extensions as tests of the validity of the semiclassical method in different regions of space for the electron distribution. [Pg.216]

Field emission is a tunneling phenomenon in solids and is quantitatively explained by quantum mechanics. Also, field emission is often used as an auxiliary technique in STM experiments (see Part II). Furthermore, field-emission spectroscopy, as a vacuum-tunneling spectroscopy method (Plummer et al., 1975a), provides information about the electronic states of the tunneling tip. Details will be discussed in Chapter 4. For an understanding of the field-emission phenomenon, the article of Good and Muller (1956) in Handhuch der Physik is still useful. The following is a simplified analysis of the field-emission phenomenon based on a semiclassical method, or the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation (see Landau and Lifshitz, 1977). [Pg.44]

transmission coefficient 44 tunneling, in 61... [Pg.410]

In the last few years we have witnessed the successful development of several methods for the numerical solution of multi-dimensional quantum Hamiltonians Monte Carlo methods centroid methods,mixed quantum-classical methods, and recently a revival of semiclassical methods. We have developed another approach to this problem, the exponential resummation of the evolution operator. - The rest of this Section will explain briefly this method. [Pg.74]

Moreover, new semiclassical methods have been developed that are based on the Gutzwiller and Berry-Tabor trace formulas [12, 13]. These methods allow the calculation of energy levels or quantum resonances in systems with many interfering periodic orbits, as is the case for chaotic dynamics. [Pg.493]

Let us turn back to the results of Section II.A. The level density (2.6), which involves the trace of the resolvent, may be evaluated with semiclassical methods. The early works by Wigner, Weyl, Thomas, and Fermi already showed how to obtain the average level density and, in general, the average values of... [Pg.498]

The previous discussion shows that the relaxation processes emerge from the quantum dynamics under appropriate circumstances leading to the formation of time-dependent quasiclassical parts in the observable quantities. Let us add that quasiclassical and semiclassical methods have been recently applied to the optical response of quantum systems in several works [65, 66] where the relation to the Liouville formulation of quantum mechanics has been discussed, without however pointing out the existence of Liouvillian resonances as we discussed here above. The connection between the property of chaos and n-time correlation functions or the nth-order response of a system in multiple-pulse experiments has also been discussed [67, 68]. [Pg.514]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.224 ]

** Multidimensional systems semiclassical method **

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