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** Fugacity models multimedia model **

One of the simplest cases of phase behavior modeling is that of soHd—fluid equilibria for crystalline soHds, in which the solubility of the fluid in the sohd phase is negligible. Thermodynamic models are based on the principle that the fugacities (escaping tendencies) of component are equal for all phases at equilibrium under constant temperature and pressure (51). The soHd-phase fugacity,, can be represented by the following expression at temperature T ... [Pg.224]

General Properties of Computerized Physical Property System. Flow-sheeting calculations tend to have voracious appetites for physical property estimations. To model a distillation column one may request estimates for chemical potential (or fugacity) and for enthalpies 10,000 or more times. Depending on the complexity of the property methods used, these calculations could represent 80% or more of the computer time requited to do a simulation. The design of the physical property estimation system must therefore be done with extreme care. [Pg.75]

Limiting L ws. Simple laws that tend to describe a narrow range of behavior of real fluids and substances, and which contain few, if any, adjustable parameters are called limiting laws. Models of this type include the ideal gas law equation of state and the Lewis-RandaH fugacity rule (10). [Pg.232]

Phase Equihbria Models Two approaches are available for modeling the fugacity of a solute,, in a supercritical fluid solution. The compressed gas approach is the most common where ... [Pg.2002]

In 1970 Widom and Rowlinson (WR) introduced an ingeniously simple model for the study of phase transitions in fluids [185]. It consists of two species of particles, A and B, in which the only interaction is a hard core between particles of unlike species i.e., the pair potential v jsir) is inflnite if a P and r < and is zero otherwise. WR assumed an A-B demixing phase transition to occur in dimensions D >2 when the fugacity... [Pg.86]

Multimedia models can describe the distribution of a chemical between environmental compartments in a state of equilibrium. Equilibrium concentrations in different environmental compartments following the release of defined quantities of pollutant may be estimated by using distribution coefficients such as and H s (see Section 3.1). An alternative approach is to use fugacity (f) as a descriptor of chemical quantity (Mackay 1991). Fugacity has been defined as fhe fendency of a chemical to escape from one phase to another, and has the same units as pressure. When a chemical reaches equilibrium in a multimedia system, all phases should have the same fugacity. It is usually linearly related to concentration (C) as follows ... [Pg.70]

Activity coefficient models offer an alternative approach to equations of state for the calculation of fugacities in liquid solutions (Prausnitz ct al. 1986 Tas-sios, 1993). These models are also mechanistic and contain adjustable parameters to enhance their correlational ability. The parameters are estimated by matching the thermodynamic model to available equilibrium data. In this chapter, vve consider the estimation of parameters in activity coefficient models for electrolyte and non-electrolyte solutions. [Pg.268]

Activity coefficient models are functions of temperature, composition and to a very small extent pressure. They offer the possibility of expressing the fugacity... [Pg.274]

If an activity coefficient model is to be used at high pressure (Equation 4.27), then the vapor-phase fugacity coefficient can be predicted from Equation 4.47. However,... [Pg.64]

In Mackay s development of an equilibrium model a slice of the earth is selected as a unit world or model ecosystem. Fugac-ities are calculated for each compartment of the ecosystem and the overall distribution patterns of a given chemical are predicted. [Pg.106]

The method of using fugacity calculations will be discussed later in this symposium, therefore a detailed description will not be given in this paper. The description of equilibrium models using chemical equilibrium expressions will be discussed with the recognition that the two approaches are very much the same. [Pg.107]

Application of Fugacity Models to the Estimation of Chemical Distribution and Persistence in the Environment... [Pg.175]

In a series of recent papers Q - 4), we have advocated the use of the fugacity concept as an aid to compartmental modeling of chemicals which may be deliberately or inadvertantly discharged into the environment. The use of fugacity instead of concentration may facilitate the formulation and interpretation of environmental models it can simplify the mathematics and permit processes which are quite different in character to be compared... [Pg.175]

An attractive feature of the fugacity models is that they can be applied at various levels of complexity, depending on the perceived modelling need and the availability of data. The determinants of complexity are believed to be as follows. [Pg.177]

Equilibrium. Equilibrium between compartments can be expressed either as partition coefficients K.. (i.e. concentration ratio at equilibrium) or in the fugacity models as fugacity capacities and Z. such that K.. is Z./Z., the relationships being depicted in Figur 1. Z is dellned as tfte ratio of concentration C (mol/m3) to fugacity f (Pa), definitions being given in Table I. [Pg.177]

Summary. In summary, when modeling with the fugacity concept, all equilibria can be treated by Z values (one for each compartment) and all reaction, advection and transport processes can be treated by D values. The only other quantities requiring definition are compartment volumes and emission rates or initial concentrations. A major advantage is that since all D quantities are in equivalent units they can be compared directly and the dominant processes identified. By converting diverse processes such as volatilization, sediment deposition, fish uptake and stream flow into identical units, their relative importance can be established directly and easily. Further, algebraic manipulation... [Pg.180]

We illustrate these concepts by applying various fugacity models to PCB behavior in evaluative and real lake environments. The evaluative models are similar to those presented earlier (3, 4). The real model has been developed recently to provide a relatively simple fugacity model for real situations such as an already contaminated lake or river, or in assessing the likely impact of new or changed industrial emissions into aquatic environments. This model is called the Quantitative Water Air Sediment Interactive (or QWASI) fugacity model. Mathematical details are given elsewhere (15). [Pg.181]

The evaluative fugacity model equations and levels have been presented earlier (1, 2, 3). The level I model gives distribution at equilibrium of a fixed amount of chemical. Level II gives the equilibrium distribution of a steady emission balanced by an equal reaction (and/or advection) rate and the average residence time or persistence. Level III gives the non-equilibrium steady state distribution in which emissions are into specified compartments and transfer rates between compartments may be restricted. Level IV is essentially the same as level III except that emissions vary with time and a set of simultaneous differential equations must be solved numerically (instead of algebraically). [Pg.181]

The QWASI fugacity model contains expressions for the 15 processes detailed in Figure 2. For each process, a D term is calculated as the rate divided by the prevailing fugacity such that the rate becomes Df as described earlier. The D terms are then grouped and mass balance equations derived. [Pg.181]

Figure 2A. Diagram of processes included in the QWASI fugacity model showing D values for a trichlorobiphenyl in a lake similar to Lake Michigan. |

To illustrate the model a steady state solution is given which would apply to the lake after prolonged steady exposure to water emission of 10 mol/h and atmospheric input from air of 5.3 ng/m3. The solution is given in Figure 2B in the form of fugacities, concentrations and transport and transformation process rates. [Pg.194]

** Fugacity models multimedia model **

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