Figure C3.2.12. Experimentally observed electron transfer time in psec (squares) and theoretical electron transfer times (survival times, Tau a and Tau b) predicted by an extended Sumi-Marcus model. For fast solvents tire survival times are a strong Emction of tire characteristic solvent relaxation dynamics. For slower solvents tire electron transfer occurs tlirough tire motion of intramolecular degrees of freedom. From [451. |

Mollenauer L F, Stolen R H and Gordon J P 1980 Experimental observation of picosecond pulse narrowing and solitons in optical fibres Phys. Rev. Lett. 45 1095-7 [Pg.1993]

Cox A J, Louderback J G and Bloomfield L A 1993 Experimental observation of magnetism in rhodium clusters Phys. Rev. Lett. 71 923 [Pg.2405]

Lee K-J, MoCormiok W D, Pearson J E and Swinney H L 1994 Experimental observation of self-replioating spots in a reaotion-diffusion system Nature 369 215-8 [Pg.1118]

This is the seminal book on metastable ions, their chemistry and experimental observation. It is a must for anyone starting out in gas-phase ion chemistry. [Pg.1360]

Most surfaces are heterogeneous so that in Eq. XI-6 will vary with 6. The experimentally observed adsorption isotherm may then be written [Pg.393]

The existence of intennolecular interactions is apparent from elementary experimental observations. There must be attractive forces because otherwise condensed phases would not fomi, gases would not liquefy, and liquids would not solidify. There must be short-range repulsive interactions because otherwise solids and liquids could be compressed to much smaller volumes with ease. The kernel of these notions was fomuilated in the late eighteenth century, and Clausius made a clear statement along the lines of this paragraph as early as 1857 [1]. [Pg.184]

One may now consider how changes can be made in a system across an adiabatic wall. The first law of thermodynamics can now be stated as another generalization of experimental observation, but in an unfamiliar form the M/ork required to transform an adiabatic (thermally insulated) system, from a completely specified initial state to a completely specifiedfinal state is independent of the source of the work (mechanical, electrical, etc.) and independent of the nature of the adiabatic path. This is exactly what Joule observed the same amount of work, mechanical or electrical, was always required to bring an adiabatically enclosed volume of water from one temperature 0 to another 02. [Pg.329]

It is important to recognize that thennodynamic laws are generalizations of experimental observations on systems of macroscopic size for such bulk systems the equations are exact (at least within the limits of the best experimental precision). The validity and applicability of the relations are independent of the correchiess of any model of molecular behaviour adduced to explain them. Moreover, the usefiilness of thennodynamic relations depends cmcially on measurability, unless an experimenter can keep the constraints on a system and its surroundings under control, the measurements may be worthless. [Pg.322]

This time-dependent method allows one to nieely eoimeet the theoretieal and experimental observations. As mentioned earlier, the eorrelation fiinotion and its generalizations yield the speetra for a large number of other photospeetroseopy proeesses, sueh as Raman proeesses [ ], as well as moleeular seattering [73, 74], [Pg.2306]

In the example of the previous section, the release of the stop always leads to the motion of the piston in one direction, to a final state in which the pressures are equal, never in the other direction. This obvious experimental observation turns out to be related to a mathematical problem, the integrability of differentials in themiodynamics. The differential Dq, even is inexact, but in mathematics many such expressions can be converted into exact differentials with the aid of an integrating factor. [Pg.333]

The Bom approximation for the differential cross section provides the basis for the interpretation of many experimental observations. The discussion is often couched in temis of the generalized oscillator strength. [Pg.1317]

If this criterion is based on the maximum-likelihood principle, it leads to those parameter values that make the experimental observations appear most likely when taken as a whole. The likelihood function is defined as the joint probability of the observed values of the variables for any set of true values of the variables, model parameters, and error variances. The best estimates of the model parameters and of the true values of the measured variables are those which maximize this likelihood function with a normal distribution assumed for the experimental errors. [Pg.98]

In extensively deionized suspensions, tliere are experimental indications for effective attractions between particles, such as long-lived void stmctures [89] and attractions between particles confined between charged walls [90]. Nevertlieless, under tliese conditions tire DLVO tlieory does seem to describe interactions of isolated particles at tire pair level correctly [90]. It may be possible to explain tire experimental observations by taking into account explicitly tire degrees of freedom of botli tire colloidal particles and tire small ions [91, 92]. [Pg.2687]

There are some subtleties with respect to the physicochemical meaning of the contact angle equation, and these are taken up in Section X-7. The preceding, however, serves to introduce the conventional definitions to permit discussion of the experimental observations. [Pg.355]

While many methods for parameter estimation have been proposed, experience has shown some to be more effective than others. Since most phenomenological models are nonlinear in their adjustable parameters, the best estimates of these parameters can be obtained from a formalized method which properly treats the statistical behavior of the errors associated with all experimental observations. For reliable process-design calculations, we require not only estimates of the parameters but also a measure of the errors in the parameters and an indication of the accuracy of the data. [Pg.96]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.306 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.55 , Pg.56 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.186 ]

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