The extrusion of a polymer melt for film blowing is usually carried out using an annular die with a thin gap such that K 0.90. For example, a film blowing die may have an outer diameter of 0.045 m and an inner diameter of 0.0449 m. Hence, k is about 0.998. The equation of motion for this flow is [Pg.26]

For a power-law fluid, is given by Eq. 2.32. One now expands the derivative in Eq. 2.90 and compares the order of each term [Pg.26]

One can compare the order of each term on the left side of Eq. 2.91 to determine if one or the other is dominant. Given the conditions in the example, PR will be about 0.5R(l - k) or p = 0.999. Hence, [Pg.26]

Therefore, dxrjdr is about 1000 times greater than Xrjr and one neglects the second term in Eq. 2.91. Now we integrate Eq. 2.91 to find the stress field [Pg.26]

Mathematically it can be shown that certain functions can be approximated by a series of other functions. For all values of x, it can be shown that [Pg.49]

For a sufficiently small value of x, the exponential can be approximated with [Pg.49]

there is an approximation for unreliability when Xt is sufficiently small [Pg.49]

Remember that this is only an approximation and not a fundamental equation. Often the notation for unreliability is PF (probability of failure) and the equation is shown as [Pg.49]

Problem A device has a failure rate of 0.00005 failures per hour. For a mission time of 100 hours, what is the unreliability [Pg.50]

Applications of quantum mechanics to chemistry invariably deal with systems (atoms and molecules) that contain more than one particle. Apart from the hydrogen atom, the stationary-state energies caimot be calculated exactly, and compromises must be made in order to estimate them. Perhaps the most useful and widely used approximation in chemistry is the independent-particle approximation, which can take several fomis. Conuiion to all of these is the assumption that the Hamiltonian operator for a system consisting of n particles is approximated by tlie sum... [Pg.24]

For larger systems, various approximate schemes have been developed, called mixed methods as they treat parts of the system using different levels of theory. Of interest to us here are quantuin-seiniclassical methods, which use full quantum mechanics to treat the electrons, but use approximations based on trajectories in a classical phase space to describe the nuclear motion. The prefix quantum may be dropped, and we will talk of seiniclassical methods. There are a number of different approaches, but here we shall concentrate on the few that are suitable for direct dynamics molecular simulations. An overview of other methods is given in the introduction of [21]. [Pg.252]

A very simple — and in fact quite widely used — approximation completely neglects long range electrostatic interactions beyond a certain cut-off distance [43] of typic ally 8 — 15 A. For systems which are significantly larger... [Pg.79]

To exemplify both aspects of the formalism and for illustration purposes, we divide the present manuscript into two major parts. We start with calculations of trajectories using approximate solution of atomically detailed equations (approach B). We then proceed to derive the equations for the conditional probability from which a rate constant can be extracted. We end with a simple numerical example of trajectory optimization. More complex problems are (and will be) discussed elsewhere [7]. [Pg.264]

When considering the construction of exactly symmetric schemes, we are obstructed by the requirement to find exactly symmetric approximations to exp(—ir/f/(2fi,)). But it is known [10], that the usual stepsize control mechanism destroys the reversibility of the discrete solution. Since we are applying this mechanism, we now may use approximations to exp —iTH/ 2h)) which are not precisely symmetric, i.e., we are free to take advantage of the superior efficiency of iterative methods for evaluating the matrix exponential. In the following, we will compare three different approaches. [Pg.405]

Use approximately 0 5 ml. of glycerol, and cork the flask A securely when weighing the glycerol by difference, owing to the very hygroscopic nature of the latter. Heat on the water-bath for 60 minutes instead of 30 minutes. Excellent results are obtained by this method if a freshly opened sample of anhydrous glycerol is available a sample which has been exposed to the air for even a short period will absorb sufficient water to give inaccurate results. [Pg.452]

Use approximately 0-5 g. of the finely powdered anhydrous glucose, heating for 60 minutes. Slightly low results (e.., 4-7-4 8 Hydroxyl groups) are usually obtained. [Pg.452]

Variational methods, in particular the linear variational method, are the most widely used approximation techniques in quantum chemistry. To implement such a method one needs to know the Hamiltonian H whose energy levels are sought and one needs to construct a trial wavefunction in which some flexibility exists (e.g., as in the linear variational method where the Cj coefficients can be varied). In Section 6 this tool will be used to develop several of the most commonly used and powerful molecular orbital methods in chemistry. [Pg.59]

Ej(R). In the crudest useful approximation, Ej(R) is taken to be a so-called harmonic potential... [Pg.69]

B. Big secret..Quack , Use approximately a total of 600 ml (twice the amount prescribed) for the three extractions. Don t quack at me...its starting fluid. It s cheap Quack Here it is Let the first extraction sit for several hours (or overnight) and the seperation will be VERY clean. However, there will still be an emulsion present in the ether layer. Now, the Quackload of product will be in the first extraction, so the emulsion and settling of the following two will be much quacker (faster). Combine ALL three ether extracts and note that there will be a little water that will separate out from them. [Pg.91]

Use approximations developed for dilute polymer solutions. Note that the values for m + satisfy the requirement for dilution at 10" m but not at 10" m. [Pg.572]

The three principal domestic uses for rice in 1988 were direct food (61%), processed food (18%), and beer (20%). The direct food use figure includes the conventional white milled rice plus specialty rice products (parboiled, precooked, aromatic, brown, and prepackaged mixes) shipped directly from the rice mills. The specialty products account for approximately one-fifth of the direct food use. Approximately two-thirds of the direct food use rice is ultimately distributed to consumers through retail outlets and one-third through food service outlets. [Pg.358]

The other models can be appHed to non-Newtonian materials where time-dependent effects are absent. This situation encompasses many technically important materials from polymer solutions to latices, pigment slurries, and polymer melts. At high shear rates most of these materials tend to a Newtonian viscosity limit. At low shear rates they tend either to a yield point or to a low shear Newtonian limiting viscosity. At intermediate shear rates, the power law or the Casson model is a useful approximation. [Pg.167]

Portland cement is manufactured by two basic processes, the wet process and the dry process. The dry process uses approximately 25% less energy per ton of Portland cement and is used to produce about 68% of the U.S. Portland cement. Both processes start by mixing selected raw materials, cmshed and/or milled to approximately s in. (1.9 cm) diameter, in the correct ratios to give the final desired chemical composition. [Pg.322]

The model of the ciystallizei and selective removal devices that led to equations 64—66 is referred to as the R-Z crystallizer. It is an obvious idealization of actual crystallizers because of the perfect cuts assumed at and However, it is a useful approximation to many systems and it allows quahtative analyses of complex operations. The R-Z model may also be representative of inadvertant classification, ie, fines or course crystals may be preferentially removed from a crystallizer without installation of specific hardware to accomphsh such an objective. [Pg.354]

Economic Aspects. A peakia calcium cyanamide production was probably reached ia 1962 when the world production for fertilizer use was of the order of 1,000,000 metric tons of calcium cyanamide per year, and for iadustrial use approximately 300,000 t (excluding the then USSR). In 1990, the total production of cyanamide products was about half that of 1962. The largest producers are ia Japan, Germany, and Canada. [Pg.369]

Uses. Approximately 70% of the U.S. production is used to make poly(tetramethylene ether glycol) [25190-06-1] (PTMEG), also known as poly-THE, which is used in the production of urethane elastomers, polyurethane fibers (ether-based spandex), and copolyester—ether elastomers. PTMEG is also the fastest growing use (see PoLYETPiERS, TETRAHYDROFURAn). The remaining production is used as a solvent for the manufacture of poly(vinyl chloride) cements and coating, precision magnetic tape, a reaction solvent in the production of pharmaceuticals, and other miscellaneous uses. [Pg.429]

Downfield shifts positive. Chemical shifts from NH3 or MeN02 calculated using approximate values McN02 380 p.p.m., NOJ 376p.p.m., NH3 Op.p.m. (b-79mui70i). [Pg.140]

A useful approximation of B for a conical hopper is B = 22f/a, where a is the bulk density of the stored product. The apparatus for determining the properties of solids has been developed and is offered for sale by the consulting firm of Jenike and Johansen, Winchester, Massachusetts, which also performs these tests on a contract basis. The flow-factor FF tester, a constant-rate-of-strain, direct-shear-type machine, gives the locus of points for the FF cui ve as well as ( ), the... [Pg.1938]

The bulk density of broken coal varies according to the specific gravity, size distribution, and moisture content of the coal and the amount of settling when the coal is pded. Following are some useful approximations of the bulk density of various ranks of coal. [Pg.2360]

A useful approximation to estimate the possibility of a particular reaction which depends on internal heat generation to produce the products in the proper state for separation is to ignore the heat losses from die reactor, and assumes an average heat capacity calculated from die Neumann-Kopp law... [Pg.346]

Often in stress analysis we may be required to make simplified assumptions, and as a result, uneertainties or loss of aeeuraey are introdueed (Bury, 1975). The aeeuraey of ealeulation deereases as the eomplexity inereases from the simple ease, but ultimately the eomponent part will still break at its weakest seetion. Theoretieal failure formulae are devised under assumptions of ideal material homogeneity and isotropie behaviour. Homogeneous means that the materials properties are uniform throughout isotropie means that the material properties are independent of orientation or direetion. Only in the simplest of eases ean they furnish us with the eomplete solution of the stress distribution problem. In the majority of eases, engineers have to use approximate solutions and any of the real situations that arise are so eomplieated that they eannot be fully represented by a single mathematieal model (Gordon, 1991). [Pg.192]

Progressive replacement of amine hardener by a low-viscosity flexibiliser will reduce mix viscosity, increase pot life and reduce the heat distortion temperature of the cured system. Higher impaet strengths are achieved using approximately equivalent amounts of hardener and flexibiliser. [Pg.771]

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