Rgure 5 Time derivative analysis for a sample mixture of two species. The rate of change of the concentration profile is approximated from the difference between scans, and transformed into a plot showing the distribution of sedimentation coefficients in the sample. [Pg.490]

The positive results obtained at production scale give us confidence in the validity of our approach. Derivation of a simple scaling factor enabled us to conduct a series of experiments in a small pilot plant which would have been expensive and time-consuming on a production scale. Time series analysis not only provided us with estimates of the process gain, dead time and the process time constants, but also yielded an empirical transfer function which is process-specific, not one based on... [Pg.485]

While we laud the virtue of dynamic modeling, we will not duphcate the introduction of basic conservation equations. It is important to recognize that all of the processes that we want to control, e.g. bioieactor, distillation column, flow rate in a pipe, a drag delivery system, etc., are what we have learned in other engineering classes. The so-called model equations are conservation equations in heat, mass, and momentum. We need force balance in mechanical devices, and in electrical engineering, we consider circuits analysis. The difference between what we now use in control and what we are more accustomed to is that control problems are transient in nature. Accordingly, we include the time derivative (also called accumulation) term in our balance (model) equations. [Pg.8]

With frequency response analysis, we can derive a general relative stability criterion. The result is apphcable to systems with dead time. The analysis of the closed-loop system can be reduced to using only the open-loop transfer functions in the computation. [Pg.155]

The rate of reaction at constant volume is thus proportional to the time derivative of the molar concentration. However, it should he emphasized that in general the rate of reaction is not equal to the time derivative of a concentration. Moreover, omission of the 1 / term frequently leads to errors in the analysis and use of kinetic data. When one substitutes the product of concentration and volume for nt in equation 3.0.3, the essential difference between equations 3.0.3 and 3.0.8 becomes obvious. [Pg.25]

Selected entries from Methods in Enzymology [vol, page(s)j Boundary analysis [baseline correction, 240, 479, 485-486, 492, 501 second moment, 240, 482-483 time derivative, 240, 479, 485-486, 492, 501 transport method, 240, 483-486] computation of sedimentation coefficient distribution functions, 240, 492-497 diffusion effects, correction [differential distribution functions, 240, 500-501 integral distribution functions, 240, 501] weight average sedimentation coefficient estimation, 240, 497, 499-500. [Pg.632]

Despite the low reproducibility and short life time of the NP columns, they are widely used owing to their better selectivity and resolution power, which enable the separation of (3- and y-isomers easily. The most used stationary phases are silica, aminopropyl- or diol-bonded [476], A more accurate description of the column used can be found in a review about tocol-derivatives analysis by Abidi [477], Kamal-Eldin et al. [478] compare the performance of new silica-type columns, six different silica columns, three amino columns, and one diol column. The new generation column results are much more repeatable and therefore suitable for vitamers analysis. [Pg.612]

As an example of the application this work, Kapral [285] and Pagistas and Kapral [37] have considered the reaction rate between iodine atoms (or some other similar species) effectively distributed uniformly in solution. They compared their calculations with those of the diffusion equation analysis and with the molecular pair approach rather than compare rate coefficients, Kapral [285] compared the rate kernels (which are approximately the time derivatives of rate coefficients). Over long times, these kinetic theory and molecular pair rate kernels both reduce to the typical form of the Smoluckowski rate kernel. However, with parameters such as R — 0.43 nm and D = 6 x 10 9m2s 1, the time beyond which the rate kernels of kinetic theory and the Smoluchowski theory are in reasonably close agreement is 20 ps, a time much longer than the velocity... [Pg.218]

In the analysis of the bulk periodic orbits, a simplification occurs for the bending oscillations. Because the Hamiltonian of a linear molecule depends quadratically on the angular momentum variable La, the time derivative of the conjugated angle given by = l2 c vanishes with La, in contrast to the time derivatives of the other angle variables, which are essentially equal to 0j - os j. Therefore, the subsystem La = 0 always contains bulk periodic orbits that are labeled by n, tr2,n-i). [Pg.527]

As described in further details in Section 5, we analyze the scans using the software DCDT+ (Philo, 2006), which converts the raw concentration profiles into time derivatives (dc/dt) and fits these values to approximate unbounded solutions of the Lamm equation (Philo, 2000 Stafford, 1994). As the rotor speed (ft)) and the concentration of the macromolecules (c) are known, and the time (t) and the radial concentration distribution [c(x, f)] are obtained from the scans of absorbance profiles, the fitting yields values of s and D. As both parameters are dependent on the solvent viscosity and temperature, they are transformed to standard values with reference to a standard temperature (20 °C) and a standard solvent (water) and reported as 52o,w and /92o,w This standardization allows analysis of the changes in the intrinsic properties of solute molecules with changes in solution condition and is a prerequisite in cation-mediated folding studies of RNA molecules. [Pg.215]

Several softwares are available for analysis of SV data, like SVED-BERG (Philo, 1997), SEDFIT SEDPHAT (Schuck, 2000, 2004), and DCDT+ (Philo, 2000, 2006). We analyze the SV data using the DCDT+ software (Philo, 2000, 2006) based on the time-derivative (dc/dt) analysis method (Stafford, 1992, 1994). The software, details about its release versions and operational instructions are made available at http //www.jphilo. mailway. com/dcdt+.htm. We briefly summarize the theory behind the method and guidelines for data analysis in the context of an RNA folding experiment. [Pg.224]

The radial concentration scans obtained from the UV spectrophotometer of the analytical ultracentrifuge can be either converted to a radial derivative of the concentrations at a given instant of time (dc/dr)t or to the time derivative of the concentrations at fixed radial position (dc/dt)r (Stafford, 1992). The dcf dt method, as the name implies, uses the temporal derivative which results in elimination of time independent (random) sources of noise in the data, thereby greatly increasing the precision of sedimentation boundary analysis (Stafford, 1992). Numerically, this process is implemented by subtracting pairs of radial concentration scans obtained at uniformly and closely spaced time intervals c2 — G)/( 2 — h)]. The values are then plotted as a function of radius to obtain (dc/dt) f versus r curves (Stafford, 1994). It can be shown that the apparent sedimentation coefficient s ... [Pg.224]

Stafford, W. F. III. (1992). Boundary analysis in sedimentation transport experiments A procedure for obtaining sedimentation coefficient distributions using the time derivative of the concentration profile. Anal. Biochem. 203(2), 295-301. [Pg.236]

On the other hand knowledge of these functions and of the spectra of relaxation (or retardation) times derived from them, is very helpful for obtaining insight into the molecular mechanisms by which they are originated. Analysis of the time dependency of mechanical properties thus provides a powerful tool to investigate the relations between structure and properties. [Pg.109]

As described above, time-delay analysis [389] of the energy derivative of the phase matrix 4> determines parametric functions that characterize the Breit-Wigner formula for the fixed-nuclei resonant / -matrix R[N(q e). The resonance energy eKS(q), the decay width y(q). and the channel-projection vector y(q) define R and its associated phase matrix such that tan = k(q)R , where... [Pg.175]

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