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** Degrees effect of equality constraints **

Not every person will experience side effects equally. [Pg.112]

The experimental extinction in a system that displays these two effects equals the sum of cabs plus r. [Pg.231]

When equal quantities of work are produced by any means from purely thermal sources, or spent in purely thermal effects, equal quantities of heat are put out of existence, or are generated. [Pg.31]

The pressures inside and outside of the void are effectively equal until the resin viscosity becomes so high that viscous effects become important. As the resin proceeds toward solidification, the pressure in the void can rise significantly above the resin pressure. Surface tension effects are also negligible for voids larger than 100 pm. [Pg.193]

Oxycodone is available alone or in combination with either acetaminophen or aspirin. Its chemical structure is most closely related to codeine, but it has strong painkilling effects equal to those of morphine. [Pg.400]

Establish final design criteria Allowable stresses, strains, deflections Margins of safety against local and overall instability, vibrations, etc. Take into account type and duration of load, service environments, process effects, equality expectations [Pg.8]

The experimental KIEs were determined for the aliphatic Claisen rearrangement in p-cymene at 120°C and for the aromatic Claisen rearrangement either neat at 170°C or in diphenyl ether at 220°C. Changes in 2H, 13C or 170 composition were determined for unreacted substrates. For carbon analysis of allyl vinyl ether the C5 carbon was used as an internal standard. The C4 atom and rneta aryl protons were used as references in analysis of allyl phenyl ether. The 170 analysis was based on a new methodology. The results are summarized in Table 1, along with predicted isotope effects calculated for experimental temperatures by means of different computational methods. The absolute values of predicted isotope effects for C4 and C5 atoms varied with theoretical level and all isotope effects were rescaled to get reference effects equal to 1.000. [Pg.160]

In this equation it has been assumed that p((p( - pv) is effectively equal to p2. [Pg.577]

At the shear plane, fluid motion relative to the particle surface is 2ero. For particles with no adsorbed surfactant or ionic atmosphere, this plane is at the particle surface. Adsorbed surfactant or ions that are strongly attracted to the particle, with their accompanying solvent, prevent Hquid motion close to the particle, thus moving the shear plane away from the particle surface. The effective potential at the shear plane is called the 2eta potential, It is smaller than the potential at the surface, but because it is difficult to determine 01 To usual assumption is that /q is effectively equal to which can be [Pg.545]

The observation of these linear relations is of interest since the energy changes of the initial states are obtained from a process involving displacements of atoms which are effectively equal to two-electron changes. On the other hand, electron transfer involves the movement of a single electron without atom transfer. There is no a priori reason therefore for the correlation. Observation of the correlations also [Pg.209]

Another, more indirect but perhaps more efficient method, would be to determine K for a number of typical systems, perhaps by use of model compounds, and then to select for kinetic experiments initiator systems for which K is so great that [Pn+] is effectively equal to c0, so that then the simple Equation (1) with [Pn+] = c0 is applicable. The trouble is that this method will probably only work for fairly polar solvents, because it is to be expected that Kp will be smaller, the less polar the solvent. This effect is probably one of the factors responsible for the improbably low kp value obtained by Higashimura for styrene in benzene solution [7]. In any case, for solvents of low polarity the participation of paired cations must be taken into account, which makes the relevant equations rather more complicated, but does not alter the relevance and importance of equilibrium (i). [Pg.285]

Suppose a factor X has 45, 50, and 55 as extreme low, nominal, and extreme high levels, respectively, and an effect of 100 on response Y, with the critical effect equal to 80. Then the non-significance interval limits for this factor are [46.0,54.0], which means that when restricting the levels of X to this interval, the quantitative aspect of the method is considered robust. It can be noticed that the interval is symmetrically around the nominal level and meant for factors thus examined, i.e., with extreme levels symmetrically around the nominal. [Pg.208]

In order to estimate the relative effectiveness of the inhalation route, regression lines were drawn through dose-response values for both the oral route and the inhalation route, and the ratio of the dose values at which the two regression lines crossed the 20% performance line (an arbitrary choice) was calculated (Fig. 98). The ratio of the two slopes indicates that 3.75 times as large an aerosol dose would be needed to equal the effect of LSD given by the oral route, i.e., relative effectiveness equals 28%. [Pg.330]

For an ionic solute dissociating into v ions, the temperature coefficient is 1/v times the right-hand side of Eq. (2.60). Again, it is assumed that the solubility is sufficiently low for the mean ionic activity coefficient to be effectively equal to unity and independent of the temperature. When this premise is not met, then corrections for the heat of dilution from the value of the solubility to infinite dilution must be added to Asoi //°b in Eq. (2.60). [Pg.78]

A still more useful improvement is in increased sensitivity. Exposure indices (El) or film speed now easily attain the range of 2000 to 5000, an increase of 10 fold over former high-speed films. With vigorous film processing at high temperatures, color and black white films have been successfully exposed at an El of 6400. Hie use of Polaroid film continues to expand with a soon-to-be-. available fast film effectively equal in speed to 50,000 [Pg.110]

The clearest evidence for microscopic diffusion control in nitration comes from the kinetic studies of Coombes et al. (1968), with low concentrations of nitric acid in 68.3% sulphuric acid as solvent. In this medium, the concentration of nitronium ions is proportional to the concentration of molecular nitric acid as required by (24) and, since the concentration of nitronium ions is very small, the concentration of molecular nitric acid is effectively equal to the stoicheiometric concentration of nitric acid. At a given acidity, the reactions have the kinetic form (25). Nitric acid is written out in full in this equation to show that the rate coefficient is calculated with reference to the stoicheiometric concentration of the acid. This convention assists the comparison of reaction rates over a wide range of acidity. [Pg.24]

Another claim is that the nature of the errors is different between chemical and physical measurements. It is claimed [2] that for physical systems, systematic errors predominate and that these are corrected out of the result whereas for chemical systems random errors predominate. I do not know the basis for these claims but they do not align with my own experience, e.g. the systematic error associated with recovery can easily be equal or greater than the random error. An important point about the error structures is that the ability to detect and correct for systematic errors is limited by the size of the random error, but this is true for all types of measurement. It requires 13 replicate measurements to have the sensitivity to detect an effect equal to the size of the standard deviation on 1 measurement. There is also the view that the uncertainties on physical measurements are of the order of one part per million, but again this is not true. Standards of radioactivity and neutron dose uncertainties are often in the range of 1-30%. [Pg.71]

The disadvantage of the elementary reaction (5.39) is its relatively high endothermicity (the heat effect equals -79.6kJ/mol), which makes the implementation of this reaction mechanism ambiguous. However, chemical induction provides products of the induced reaction with the ability to form in concentrations exceeding thermodynamically equilibrium concentrations. This allows implementation of chemical processes with the equilibrium essentially shifted towards the initial substances [27], [Pg.178]

Substituting this result into Eq. (7.62) and assuming that in this region y/R also remains very small and 1 - y/R, thereforp, effectively equal to 1 in this region, gives [Pg.636]

** Degrees effect of equality constraints **

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