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** Isotopes, mathematical calculation **

** Mathematical equation, solving with calculator **

A chemistry student needs to have and know how to operate a scientific calculator capable of handling exponential numbers. A huge variety of features are available on calculators, but any calculator with exponential capability should be sufficient for this and other introductory chemistry courses. These calculators generally have the other function keys necessary for these courses. Once you have obtained such a calculator, practice doing calculations with it so that you will not have to think about how to use the calculator while you should be thinking about how to solve the chemistry problems. [Pg.297]

Some calculators have more than twice as many functions as function keys. Each key stands for two different operations, one typically labeled on the key and the other above the key. To use the second function (above the key), you press a special key first and then the function key. This special key is labeled INV (for inverse) on some calculators, 2ndF (for second function) on others, and something else on still others. On a few calculators, the MODE key gives several keys a third function. Most scientific calculators have a memory in which you can store one or more values and later recall the value. [Pg.297]

Some of the examples in this section involve very simple calculations. The idea is to learn to use the calculator for operations that you can easily do in your head if you make a mistake with the calculator, you will recognize it immediately. After you practice with simple calculations, you will have the confidence to do more complicated types. [Pg.297]

The answer in each case is 26. Try each of these calculations on your calculator to make sure that it does the operations in the correct order automatically. [Pg.298]

The API (American Petroleum Institute) gravity is another way to express the relative masses of crude oils. The API gravity could he calculated mathematically using the following equation ... [Pg.20]

ThAJ age is calculated. Mathematically, however, the choice of ratios is unimportant, provided that there is a common-denominator isotope to all three axes, and the errors and error correlations for the data points are correctly calculated. Note that, unlike paired x-y isochrons, not only can the errors of the detrital-corrected Th/ U and be... [Pg.646]

In general, when very few samples are available the force Fk(N) will not be an accurate approximation of d/l/d . Large variations in Fj (N) may lead to nonequilibrium effects and systematic bias of the calculation. Mathematically, this can be expressed by introducing a perturbation zLif fq, p, N), which is a function of the number of steps N. At N = 1 if we average over all possible initial configurations, abbreviated by subscript 0, we obtain... [Pg.142]

From Assumption C and Eq. (l), the distribution of Mr is accurately known. From statistics on lung cancer mortality, the distribution of M is accurately known. Thus, the distribution of Mr can be calculated mathematically, and the problem is completely solved, allowing us to derive predictions that can be tested. In particular,... [Pg.466]

Calculations — These questions require you to quickly calculate mathematical solutions. Since you will not be allowed to use a calculator for the multiple-choice questions, the questions requiring calculations have been limited to simple arithmetic so that they can be done quickly, either mentally or with paper and pencil. Also, in some questions, the answer choices differ by several orders of magnitude so that the questions can be answered by estimation. [Pg.21]

Another very useful exploration technique is cluster analyis, which quantifies similarities by calculating mathematic distances. The typical graphic output is a dendrogram. A common method of cluster analysis is Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). [Pg.62]

The dissociation constant of an analyte can be calculated mathematically from Hammet s equation.27 The organic solvent effect on the pA a has also been examined 26... [Pg.113]

If we suppose that two arrays of time delays Mi and M2 correspond to the normal distribution law and they are not homogeneous then the attack is carried out using intermediate computers [12], Therefore, it is necessary to fulfill the appropriate analysis in order to determine the attack source status. For this purpose it is necessary to calculate mathematical expectations xv for an array Mi(f) and yv for an array M2(0, dispersions Dvx, Dvy and mean-square errors crvx and

This appendix introduces two mathematics topics important for chemistry stndents (1) scientific algebra and (2) electronic calculator mathematics. The scientific algebra section (Section A.l) presents the relationships between scientific algebra and ordinary algebra. The two topics are much more similar than different however, because everyone already knows ordinary algebra, the differences are emphasized here. The scientific calculator section (Section A.2) discusses points with which students most often have trouble. This section is not intended to replace the instruction booklet that comes with the calculator, but to emphasize the points in that booklet that are most important to science students. [Pg.591]

It is often erroneously considered by students that arithmetic is an inferior part of mathematics concerned with computation and calculation. Mathematics is assumed to be the superior activity involved with reasoning and abstract ideas. In fact, arithmetic is said by mathe-... [Pg.255]

Various chemical surface complexation models have been developed to describe potentiometric titration and metal adsorption data at the oxide—mineral solution interface. Surface complexation models provide molecular descriptions of metal adsorption using an equilibrium approach that defines surface species, chemical reactions, mass balances, and charge balances. Thermodynamic properties such as solid-phase activity coefficients and equilibrium constants are calculated mathematically. The major advancement of the chemical surface complexation models is consideration of charge on both the adsorbate metal ion and the adsorbent surface. In addition, these models can provide insight into the stoichiometry and reactivity of adsorbed species. Application of these models to reference oxide minerals has been extensive, but their use in describing ion adsorption by clay minerals, organic materials, and soils has been more limited. [Pg.220]

The mathematical learner enjoys brainteasers and math puzzles. This type of learner benefits most by experimenting and using statistics and calculations. Mathematical learners succeed in careers such as science, mathematics, accounting, and law. [Pg.18]

Atoms and molecules are /described by a 0AVE 1 UNCTION which can be calculated mathematically and which completely specifies the system>... [Pg.99]

Quantum chemistry is the fundamental theory of molecules it allows for an all embracing and correct description ofthe structure and properties of single molecules. In principle all experimentally measurable properties could be calculated mathematically by applying the quantum chemical formalism thereby the only empirical parameters are the Planck constant, the velocity oflight, the masses, the spins and the electromagnetic momentum of the electron and of the nuclei (Muller-Herold and Primas 1984, 309). [Pg.135]

The modified board had 11% lower mass (calculated). Mathematical modeling (see Fig. 7.18) showed that the modified board had about the same flexural strength and 9% higher flexural modulus compared to the conventional board (the upper profile in Fig. 7.17). [Pg.312]

The fin efficiency rjp can be calculated mathematically, on the basis of certain reasonable assumptions, for fins of various types. For example, the efficiency of longitudinal fins is given in Fig. 15.16, in which r]p is plotted as a function of the quantity apXp, where is the height of the fin from base to tip and ap is defined by the equation... [Pg.447]

Since the kinetics of homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions are fundamentally different, Arnold et al. (157) have shown that the nonisothermal TG curve provides insufficient information for the purpose of reaction kinetic calculations. Mathematical considerations prove also that the parameters of the Arrhenius model cannot be calculated correctly from the TG curve by curve-fitting methods and that there is no unique correlation between the estimated parameters and the measured curves. Also, the correlation between A and D described as a compensation effect is certainly a mathematical... [Pg.80]

Objective functions are used primarily for computer ranking of separation quality in approaches for automated method development. For this purpose the separation quality throughout the chromatogram must be expressed by a single-valued and easily calculated mathematical function [202-209], This has proven to be a difficult problem and no universal solution has emerged. There is no straightforward manner to uniquely define the resolution of all peaks simultaneously by a single number. More likely, for... [Pg.54]

In order to interpret the reflectance spectrum, modeling of the interface is the key issue. For example, in the simulation above, we tacitly made some assumptions. One is that the change of the optical properties of the substrate and refractive index of the solution immediately adjacent to the film surface are independent of potential and the presence of the film. The use of the Fresnel model with optical constants is based on the assumption that the phases in the three-strata model are two-dimen-sionally homogeneous continua. However, if the adsorbed molecule is a globular polymer which possesses a chromophore at its core, a better model of the adsorption layer would be a homogeneously distributed point dipole incorporated in a colorless medium. To gain closer access to the interpretation of the spectrum, a more precise and detailed model would be necessary. But this may increase the number of adjustable parameters and may demand a too complex optical treatment to calculate mathematically. Moreover, one has to pile up approximations, the validity of which cannot easily be confirmed experimentally. [Pg.64]

The pAfa values of pharmaceutical compounds can be determined from migration time data obtained by running the compound with free solution CE electrolytes at a range of pH values. The mobility of the solute at each pH can be calculated from its migration time and the EOF (measured against a neutral marker such as methanol), and a plot of mobility versus pH can be constructed (see Figure 4.6). The pAfa value can be calculated mathematically or obtained from the plot. [Pg.159]

The required bond resistance can also be calculated mathematically, using the... [Pg.421]

The pKa of a Bronsted acid provides a description of the tendency of the acid to donate a proton in an aqueous (water-based) solution. A lower pKa is associated with a stronger tendency to donate protons, and thus a stronger Bronsted acid. The pKa is calculated mathematically as the negative logarithm (base 10) of the equilibrium constant for dissociation of a proton from the acid in water. [Pg.55]

Derivative spectroscopy is quite common. This involves calculating mathematical derivatives of the spectrum. The advantage is that close peaks can be resolved out. Derivatives rely on the assumption that pure peaks have only one maximum. The summation of two peaks results in a turning point that can be resolved out. However, the problem is that noise is enhanced, so derivatives are often combined with smoothing functions. These methods are described in more detail in this encyclopedia. [Pg.614]

** Isotopes, mathematical calculation **

** Mathematical equation, solving with calculator **

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