The forces are calculated as part of a molecular dynamics simulation, cind so little additional effort is required to calculate the virial and thus the pressure. The forces are not routinely calculated during a Monte Carlo simulation, and so some additional effort is required to determine the pressure by this route. When calculating the pressure it is also important to check that the components of the pressure in all three directions are equal. [Pg.323]

The quantity k is related to the intensity of the turbulent fluctuations in the three directions, k = 0.5 u u. Equation 41 is derived from the Navier-Stokes equations and relates the rate of change of k to the advective transport by the mean motion, turbulent transport by diffusion, generation by interaction of turbulent stresses and mean velocity gradients, and destmction by the dissipation S. One-equation models retain an algebraic length scale, which is dependent only on local parameters. The Kohnogorov-Prandtl model (21) is a one-dimensional model in which the eddy viscosity is given by... [Pg.102]

Computer simulations of bulk liquids are usually performed by employing periodic boundary conditions in all three directions of space, in order to eliminate artificial surface effects due to the small number of molecules. Most simulations of interfaces employ parallel planar interfaces. In such simulations, periodic boundary conditions in three dimensions can still be used. The two phases of interest occupy different parts of the simulation cell and two equivalent interfaces are formed. The simulation cell consists of an infinite stack of alternating phases. Care needs to be taken that the two phases are thick enough to allow the neglect of interaction between an interface and its images. An alternative is to use periodic boundary conditions in two dimensions only. The first approach allows the use of readily available programs for three-dimensional lattice sums if, for typical systems, the distance between equivalent interfaces is at least equal to three to five times the width of the cell parallel to the interfaces. The second approach prevents possible interactions between interfaces and their periodic images. [Pg.352]

Simulations of water in synthetic and biological membranes are often performed by modeling the pore as an approximately cylindrical tube of infinite length (thus employing periodic boundary conditions in one direction only). Such a system contains one (curved) interface between the aqueous phase and the pore surface. If the entrance region of the channel is important, or if the pore is to be simulated in equilibrium with a bulk-like phase, a scheme like the one in Fig. 2 can be used. In such a system there are two planar interfaces (with a hole representing the channel entrance) in addition to the curved interface of interest. Periodic boundary conditions can be applied again in all three directions of space. [Pg.353]

There are two other types of critical points, having either one or zero negative eigenvalues in the density Hessian. The former is usually found in the centre of a ring (e.g. benzene), and consequently denoted a ring critical point, the latter is typically found at the centre of a cage (e.g. cubane), and denoted a cage critical point. They corresponds to local minima in the electron density in two or three directions. [Pg.226]

Dynamic information such as reorientational correlation functions and diffusion constants for the ions can readily be obtained. Collective properties such as viscosity can also be calculated in principle, but it is difficult to obtain accurate results in reasonable simulation times. Single-particle properties such as diffusion constants can be determined more easily from simulations. Figure 4.3-4 shows the mean square displacements of cations and anions in dimethylimidazolium chloride at 400 K. The rapid rise at short times is due to rattling of the ions in the cages of neighbors. The amplitude of this motion is about 0.5 A. After a few picoseconds the mean square displacement in all three directions is a linear function of time and the slope of this portion of the curve gives the diffusion constant. These diffusion constants are about a factor of 10 lower than those in normal molecular liquids at room temperature. [Pg.160]

In figures 1, 2, and 3 we present the phonon DOS of Au single adatoms on Cu(lOO), Cu(llO), and Cu(lll) respectively for the three directions x, y, and z at 300"K. It is interesting to note that the structure and position of these modes are completely different from those of the corresponding clean surfaces of Cu. ... [Pg.152]

In crystals that belong to the three-dimensional category, reorientation of the polarization occurs due to displacements that appear to be relatively equal in all three directions. Such displacements are observed in the case of island-type crystals. [Pg.218]

Wood is anisotropic with distinct different properties in three directions. Its highest mechanical properties are in the growth (fiber) direction, with the perpendicular (or second plane) direction having lower properties and the other perpendicular (or third plane) direction having much lower properties. [Pg.153]

Similar expressions can be written for elrans. r and eirans. -, the energies in the y and z directions. The total translational energy is the sum of the contributions in the three directions. [Pg.499]

These momentum components, in turn, are related to the contributions to e, in the three directions... [Pg.519]

Because the three directions in space are equivalent lAruns.. v = fArans. i = Uimns. r... [Pg.520]

In turbulent motion, the presence of circulating or eddy currents brings about a much-increased exchange of momentum in all three directions of the stream flow, and these eddies are responsible for the random fluctuations in velocity The high rate of transfer in turbulent flow is accompanied by a much higher shear stress for a given velocity gradient. [Pg.75]

Just as orbital size ( ) limits the number of preferred axes (Jit/ ), the number of preferred axes (/) limits the orientations of the preferred axes (ttli). When / — 0, there is no preferred axis and there is no orientation, so W = 0. One preferred axis (7=1) can orient in any of three directions, giving three possible values for mi +l, 0, and-1. Two preferred axes (/ = 2) can orient in any of five directions, giving five possible values for +2, +1, 0, -1, and -2. Each time / increases in value by one unit, two additional values of / become possible, and the number of possible orientations increases by two ... [Pg.472]

In the liquid state, the molecules are still free to move in three dimensions but stiU have to be confined in a container in the same manner as the gaseous state if we expect to be able to measure them. However, there are important differences. Since the molecules in the liquid state have had energy removed from them in order to get them to condense, the translational degrees of freedom are found to be restricted. This is due to the fact that the molecules are much closer together and can interact with one another. It is this interaction that gives the Uquid state its unique properties. Thus, the molecules of a liquid are not free to flow in any of the three directions, but are bound by intermolecular forces. These forces depend upon the electronic structure of the molecule. In the case of water, which has two electrons on the ojQ gen atom which do not participate in the bonding structure, the molecule has an electronic moment, i.e.- is a "dipole". [Pg.12]

Note that we now have a as a vector in terms of x, y and z vectors as a function of the lattice distances in the three directions, ax, efy. ... [Pg.33]

By moving 1 unit-cell distance in the both the x- and y-dtrections, the 110) has been defined, etc. (Line B above- note that we have not illustrated the 101 plane). Moving 1 unit-cell in all three directions then gives us the 111 plane. In alike mcuiner, we can obtain the 200, 020 ... [Pg.36]

The final situation and the goal of this consideration is the generation of a zero-dimensional (OD) quantum dot. All three directions are now containing confined electrons. [Pg.5]

The new lipid occurred only in the plasma hpids of newborns and was not present in membrane hpids of red cell membranes or platelets. Total lipids were extracted from plasma and from red blood cell membranes and platelets. A total lipid profile was obtained by a three-directional PLC using silica gel plates and was developed consecutively in the following solvent mixtures (1) chloroform-methanol-concen-trated ammonium hydroxide (65 25 5, v/v), (2) chloroform-acetone-methanol-ace-tic acid-water (50 20 10 15 5, v/v), and (3) hexane-diethyl ether-acetic acid (80 20 1, v/v). Each spot was scraped off the plate a known amount of methyl heptadecanoate was added, followed by methylation and analysis by GC/MS. The accmate characterization of the new lipid was realized using NMR technique. [Pg.211]

The heptane water and toluene water interfaces were simulated by the use of the DREIDING force field on the software of Cerius2 Dynamics and Minimizer modules (MSI, San Diego) [6]. The two-phase systems were constructed from 62 heptane molecules and 500 water molecules or 100 toluene molecules and 500 water molecules in a quadratic prism cell. Each bulk phase was optimized for 500 ps at 300 K under NET ensemble in advance. The periodic boundary conditions were applied along all three directions. The calculations of the two-phase system were run under NVT ensemble. The dimensions of the cells in the final calculations were 23.5 A x 22.6 Ax 52.4 A for the heptane-water system and 24.5 A x 24.3 A x 55.2 A for the toluene-water system. The timestep was 1 fs in all cases and the simulation almost reached equilibrium after 50 ps. The density vs. distance profile showed a clear interface with a thickness of ca. 10 A in both systems. The result in the heptane-water system is shown in Fig. 3. Interfacial adsorption of an extractant can be simulated by a similar procedure after the introduction of the extractant molecule at the position from where the dynamics will be started. [Pg.364]

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