Equation 4.33 is the Fredholm integral equation of the first kind. Except for a few special cases, no solution for G x) exists (Tricomi, 1985). Numerical solutions can be used. To solve for G x) from a given q P), one needs to have an individual pore isotherm, which must be related to the pore size. Moreover, the integral equation is ill-defined, that is, the solution for G x) is not unique, unless a functional form for G x) is assumed. It is clear then that there are as many solutions for the PSD as the number of assumed functional forms. [Pg.75]

Earlier work focused on analytical solutions for the PSD function (Stoeckli, 1977 Jaroniec and Madey, 1988 Stoeckli, 1990 Rudzinski and Everett, 1992). They remain useful because of their simplicity. An outline of the solution by Jaroniec and Choma (Jaroniec et al., 1991) is given next. [Pg.75]

For a homogeneous or nearly homogeneous microporous material, the Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm (Eq. 3.9) (Dubinin and Radushkevich, 1947) is applicable [Pg.75]

The constants k and u can be determined by using data with a probe molecule (Baksh et al., 1992). The PSD function, G x), can then be calculated from Eq. 4.36 by using N2 isotherm at 77 K. [Pg.76]

The integral equation approach is a general purpose numerical method for solving mathematical problems involving linear partial differential equations with piecewise constant coefficients. It is commonly used in various fields of science and engineering, such as acoustics, electromagnetism, solid and fluid mechanics,... [Pg.29]

Rather than the integral equation approach of Rampazzo [459], the direct simulation from the transport equations is used here. In order to obtain a certain surface concentration T or fractional coverage 0, the substance in question must first arrive at the electrode, by some transport process. As was shown in Chap. 2, the normalised equation describing the accumulation of substance at the electrode is... [Pg.189]

The classic work in this connection is that by Imbeaux and Saveant [313], who took the integral equation approach (see Chap. 9), incorporating the iR effects. They also established the formulation of the problem and the way to normalise both the uncompensated resistance Ru and double layer capacitance G,u., adopted by most workers since then. Their normalisation of Ru followed that of Nicholson [415]. [Pg.194]

The ways to simulate our chosen example, the UMDE, are described here. The integral equation approach, taken by Coen and coworkers over a number of years [167,176,177,178, 179, 180, 219] for microband electrodes, can be used on the UMDE as well [179], The reader is referred to these papers for the method. Also, although the adaptive FEM approach might be thought to be about the most efficient, and has been developed by a few workers (see above, references to Nann and Heinze, and Harriman et al), it does not seem the most popular it is not trivial to program, and as Harriman et al. found, it appears that a rather large number of nodes were required. The reason is probably that this is a kind of discretisation in the original cylindrical (A, Z)... [Pg.212]

One practical way to overcome this difficulty is to abandon the integral equation approach for nonlinear inverse problems and to consider the finite difference or finite element methods of forward modeling. We will present this approach in Chapter 12. Another way is based on using approximate, but accurate enough, quasi-linear and quasi-analytical approximations for forward modeling, introduced in Chapter 8. We will discuss these techniques in the following sections of this chapter. [Pg.300]

Kouri, D.J. (1985) The General Theory of Reactive Scattering The Integral Equation Approach in M. Baer (ed.), Theory of Chemical Reaction Dynamics, CRC Press, Inc. Boca Raton, pp. 163-225. [Pg.181]

As will be seen in later chapters, the integral equation approach has been applied to other important problems relating to liquids and solutions. The MSA used to define c(r) in the region outside of a given sphere has proven to be especially useful because of its simplicity. [Pg.73]

The van der Waals one-fluid theory is quite successful in predicting the properties of mixtures of simple molecules. Unfortunately, the systems usually considered by chemists are considerably more complex, and often involve hydrogen bonding and other chemical interactions. Nevertheless, the material presented here outlines how one could proceed to develop models for more complex systems on the basis of the integral equation approach. [Pg.90]

Considerable effort has been made in recent years to improve the GC model. Early work [33] was carried out at the primitive level with the solvent represented as a dielectric continuum and the ions as hard spheres. The integral equation approach was one method applied to this problem. This work was followed by Monte Carlo studies [32]. The general result of these studies is that the GC model overestimates the magnitude of the diffuse layer potential drop (see fig. 10.18). [Pg.551]

Thus, the main scope of this book is to cover the two topics the Kirkwood-Buff theory and its inversion and solvation theory. These theories were designed and developed for mixtures and solutions. I shall also describe briefly the two important theories the integral equation approach and the scaled particle theory. These were primarily developed for studying pure simple liquids, and later were also generalized and applied for mixtures. [Pg.392]

The hard-sphere model, introduced in the 1980s, was a major step forward it demonstrated the existence of an extended boundary layer at the solution side of the interface and gave a good estimate for the contribution of the solution to the interfacial capacity. However, it was solved within the rough MSA, which holds only for small excess charges. Within the integral-equations approach, further progress has been slow. So our... [Pg.158]

The question of whether plastic strain is truly permanent, or merely a feature of very slow recovery processes has yet to be settled. The integral equation approach has confirmed that the existence of true stress maxima does not necessarily imply permanent deformation although... [Pg.404]

In a follow-up of the integral equation approach Croll made a preliminary study of the non-linear creep behaviour of the same oriented PET sheet in other orientations, and also of amorphous and crystallised isotropic PET. He discovered that whereas for the oriented material at 0 = 90° and for the amorphous isotropic sheet, the creep modulus versus stress graphs were linear, as suggested by eqn. (22), a more complicated form of non-linearity was evident both for the oriented material at 6 = 45° and 0°, and for the highly crystalline isotropic material. An example of this is shown schematically in Fig. 22 where the creep modulus/stress graph for oriented PET sheet in tension at 0 = 0°, can be seen to have three distinct regimes. [Pg.406]

The structure of the integral equation approach for calculating the angular pair correlation function g(ri2C0iC02) starts with the OZ integral equation [8.76] between the total (h) and the direct (c) correlation function, which is here schematieally rewritten as h=h[c] where h[c] denotes a functional of c. Coupled to that a second relation, the so-ealled closure relation c=c[h], is introduced. While the former is exact, the latter relation is approximated the form of this approximation is the main distinction among the various integral equation theories to be described below. [Pg.465]

In the course of time, however, a rather sophisticated scheme has developed of quantitative treatments of solute-solvent interactions in the framework of LSERs. The individual parameters employed were imagined to correspond to a particular solute-solvent interaction mechanism. Unfortunately, as it turned out, the various empirical polarity scales feature just different blends of fundamental intermolecular forces. As a consequence, we note at the door to the twenty-first century, alas with melancholy, that the era of combining empirical solvent parameters in multiparameter equations, in a scientific context, is beginning to fade away. As a matter of fact, solution chemistry researeh is increasingly being occupied by theoretical physics in terms of molecular dynamics (MD) and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, the integral equation approach, etc. [Pg.772]

Kapoor et al. [79] proposed a heterogeneous extended Langmuir (HEL) model for the description of multicomponent equilibria on heterogeneous adsorbents. With the integral equation approach of Eq. (16), the general isotherm for a pure component system can be simplified as... [Pg.424]

The lowest level of the integral equation approach treats the ions as charged hard spheres embedded in a dielectric continuum. It fulfills the conditions... [Pg.91]

Over the p t several years we and our collaborators have pursued a continuous space liquid state approach to developing a computationally convenient microscopic theory of the equilibrium properties of polymeric systems. Integral equations method [5-7], now widely employed to understand structure, thermodynamics and phase transitions in atomic, colloidal, and small molecule fluids, have been generalized to treat macromolecular materials. The purpose of this paper is to provide the first comprehensive review of this work referred to collectively as Polymer Reference Interaction Site Model (PRISM) theory. A few new results on polymer alloys are also presented. Besides providing a unified description of the equilibrium properties of the polymer liquid phase, the integral equation approach can be combined with density functional and/or other methods to treat a variety of inhomogeneous fluid and solid problems. [Pg.321]

We employ the integral equation approach of Eq. (2.8) and treat poly d(A) poly d(T) as the example. Again, for mathematical simplicity, a circular two-stranded molecule is assumed with all A on one strand and all T on the other. For N co the use of this closed boundary condition makes no difference in the final result. [Pg.153]

According to the lUPAC classification of pores, the size ranges are micropoies (<2 nm), tnesopores (2-50 nm), and macropores (>50 mn) (lUPAC, 1972). All useful sorbents have micropores. The quantitative estimation of pore size distribution (PSD), particularly for the micropores, is a crucial problem in the characterization of sorbents. Numerous methods exist, of which three main methods will be described Kelvin equation (and the BJH method), Horvath-Kawazoe approach, and the integral equation approach. [Pg.54]

Bieniasz LK (2015) Modelling electroanalytical experiments by the integral equation approach. Springer, Heidelberg... [Pg.231]

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