Two-body quantum mechanical systems are conveniently discussed by transforming to the center-of-mass system1 (Figure 1.1). The momentum (differential) operator for the relative motion is [Pg.3]

As for any quantum mechanical system interacting with electromagnetic radiation, a photon can induce either absorption or emission. The experiment detects net absorption, i.e., the difference between the number of photons absorbed and the number emitted. Since absorption is proportional to the number of spins in the lower level and emission is proportional to the number of spins in the upper level, net absorption, i.e., absorption intensity, is proportional to the difference [Pg.4]

Going back to the quantum mechanical system described by Eq. (140), we infioduce the following variables v = p = ma. In terms of these new [Pg.161]

The properties of a quantum mechanical system such as an AIM are readily calculated from any method as long as they involve an operator acting on the electron density, e.g., for the case of the dipole moment. The problem would seem to become harder for other properties, although the introduction of property densities allows us to generally introduce AIM expectation values [45], The expectation value of a property A for atom a in the Hirshfeld and QCT methods can be written as [Pg.224]

The total energy of a quantum-mechanical system can be written as the sum of its kinetic energy T, Coulombic energy Coul, and exchange and electron correlation contributions Ex and corr, respectively [Pg.192]

The treatment of the interaction of a quantum-mechanical system with radiation is described in detail in the literature (Feil 1975 Cohen-Tannoudji et al. 1977 Blume 1985, 1994). Only an outline will be given here. [Pg.5]

Although in a classical system v ( can take any value, in a quantum mechanical system it can take only certain values, and we shall now see what these are for diatomic and linear polyatomic molecules. [Pg.125]

Wigner (1930) has shown that if time is reversible in a quantum-mechanical system, then all wavefunctions can be made real. This theorem enables us to use real wavefunctions whenever possible, which are often more convenient than complex ones. Here we present a simplified proof of Wigner s theorem, with some examples of its applications. [Pg.343]

Peirce A P, Dahleh M A and Rabitz H 1988 Optimal control of quantum mechanical systems - Existence, numerical approximations and applications Phys. Rev. A 37 4950 [Pg.281]

The time-dependent Schrddinger equation governs the evolution of a quantum mechanical system from an initial wavepacket. In the case of a semiclassical simulation, this wavepacket must be translated into a set of initial positions and momenta for the pseudoparticles. What the initial wavepacket is depends on the process being studied. This may either be a physically defined situation, such as a molecular beam experiment in which the paiticles are defined in particular quantum states moving relative to one another, or a theoretically defined situation suitable for a mechanistic study of the type what would happen if. .. [Pg.268]

It should be clear that force field methods are models of the real quantum mechanical systems. The total neglect of electrons as individual particles forces the user to define explicitly the bonding present in the molecule prior to any calculations. The user must decide how to describe a given molecule in terms of the selected force field. The input to a calculation consists of three sets of information. [Pg.46]

Araki, G., Progr. Theoret. Phys. [Kyoto) 16, 197, "Partial description of a quantum-mechanical system." [Pg.345]

This technique for finding a weighted average is used for ideal gas properties and quantum mechanical systems with quantized energy levels. It is not a convenient way to design computer simulations for real gas or condensed-phase [Pg.13]

Here, we review an adiabatic approximation for the statistical mechanics of a stiff quantum mechanical system, in which vibrations of the hard coordinates are first treated quantum mechanically, while treating the more slowly evolving soft coordinates and momenta for this purpose as parameters, and in which the constrained free energy obtained by summing over vibrational quantum states is then used as a potential energy in a classical treatment of the soft coordinates and momenta. [Pg.174]

Zicovich-Wilson, C.M., Planelles, J.H. and Jaskolski, W. (1994). Spatially confined simple quantum mechanical systems. Int. J. Quantum Chem. 50, 429—444 [Pg.262]

For many applications, especially studies on enzyme reaction mechanisms, we do not need to treat the entire system quantum mechanically. It is often sufficient to treat the center of interest (e.g., the active site and the reacting molecules) quantum mechanically. The rest of the molecule can be treated using classical molecular mechanics (MM see Section 7.2). The quantum mechanical technique can be ab-initio, DFT or semi-empirical. Many such techniques have been proposed and have been reviewed and classified by Thiel and co-workers [50] Two effects of the MM environment must be incorporated into the quantum mechanical system. [Pg.395]

Before starting the discussion on confined atoms, we shall briefly describe the simplest standard confined quantum mechanical system in three dimensions (3-D), namely the particle-in-a-(spherical)-box (PIAB) model [1], The analysis of this system is useful in order to understand the main characteristics of a confined system. Let us note that all other spherically confined systems with impenetrable walls located at a certain radius, Rc, transform into the PIAB model in the limit of Rc —> 0. For the sake of simplicity, we present the model in one-dimension (1-D). In atomic units (a.u.) (me=l, qc 1, and h = 1), the Schrodinger equation for an electron confined in one-dimensional box is [Pg.521]

The principal idea of Volkenshtein, the founder of electronic theory of chemisorption, was that chemisorbed particle and solid body form a unified quantum mechanical system. During the analysis of such systems one should account for the change in electronic state of both adparticle and the adsorbent itself [9]. In other words, in this case adsorption provides for a chemical binding of molecules with adsorbent. [Pg.10]

The results of the previous section have already established that classical chaos and quantum mechanics are not incompatible in the macroscopic limit. The question then naturally arises whether observed quantum mechanical systems can be chaotic far from the classical limit This question is particularly significant as closed quantum mechanical systems are not chaotic, at least in the conventional sense of dynamical systems theory (R. Kosloff et.al., 1981 1989). In the case of observed systems it has recently been shown, by defining and computing a maximal Lyapunov exponent applicable to quantum trajectories, that the answer is in the affirmative (S. Habib et.al., 1998). Thus, realistic quantum dynamical systems are chaotic in the conventional sense and there is no fundamental conflict between quantum mechanics and the existence of dynamical chaos. [Pg.61]

The Hamiltonian models are broadly variable. Even for an isolated molecule, it is necessary to make models for the Hamiltonian - the Hamiltonian is the operator whose solutions give both the static energy and the dynamical behavior of quantum mechanical systems. In the simplest form of quantum mechanics, the Hamiltonian is the sum of kinetic and potential energies, and, in the Cartesian coordinates that are used, the Hamiltonian form is written as [Pg.9]

Up until now, little has been said about time. In classical mechanics, complete knowledge about the system at any time t suffices to predict with absolute certainty the properties of the system at any other time t. The situation is quite different in quantum mechanics, however, as it is not possible to know everything about the system at any time t. Nevertheless, the temporal behavior of a quantum-mechanical system evolves in a well defined way drat depends on the Hamiltonian operator and the wavefiinction T" according to the last postulate [Pg.11]

Here, for notational convenience, we have assumed that Vnm = We would like to emphasize that the mapping to the continuous Hamiltonian (88) does not involve any approximation, but merely represents the discrete Hamiltonian (1) in an extended Hilbert space. The quantum dynamics generated by both Hamilton operators is thus equivalent. The Hamiltonian (88) describes a general vibronically coupled molecular system, whereby both electronic and nuclear DoF are represented by continuous variables. Contrary to Eq. (1), the quantum-mechanical system described by Eq. (88) therefore has a well-defined classical analog. [Pg.306]

We shall proceed from a concept which in a certain sense is contrary to that of the two-dimensional gas. We shall treat the chemisorbed particles as impurities of the crystal surface, in other words, as structural defects disturbing the strictly periodic structure of the surface. In such an approach, which we first developed in 1948 (I), the chemisorbed particles and the lattice of the adsorbent are treated as a single quantum-mechanical system, and the chemisorbed particles are automatically included in the electronic system of the lattice. We observe that this by no means denotes that the adsorbed particles are rigidly localized they retain to a greater or lesser degree the ability to move ( creep ) over the surface. [Pg.192]

Several interesting topics have been excluded, perhaps somewhat arbitrarily, from the scope of this book. Specifically, we do not discuss analytical theories, mostly based on the integral equation formalism, even though they have contributed importantly to the field. In addition, we do not discuss coarse-grained, and, in particular, lattice and off-lattice approaches. At the opposite end of the wide spectrum of methods, we do not deal with purely quantum mechanical systems consisting of a small number of atoms. [Pg.524]

Usually adsorption, i.e. binding of foreign particles to the surface of a solid body, is distinguished as physical and chemical the difference lying in the type of adsorbate - adsorbent interaction. Physical adsorption is assumed to be a surface binding caused by polarization dipole-dipole Van-der-Vaals interaction whereas chemical adsorption, as any chemical interaction, stems from covalent forces with plausible involvement of electrostatic interaction. In contrast to chemisorption in which, as it has been already mentioned, an absorbed particle and adsorbent itself become a unified quantum mechanical system, the physical absorption only leads to a weak perturbation of the lattice of a solid body. [Pg.13]

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