The second difference is that the correlations between samples are calculated rather than the correlations between elements. In the terminology of Rozett and Peterson ( ), the correlation between elements would be an R analysis while the correlation between samples would be a Q analysis. Thus, the applications of factor analysis discussed above are R analyses. Imbrle and Van Andel ( 6) and Miesch (J 7) have found Q-mode analysis more useful for interpreting geological data. Rozett and Peterson (J ) compared the two methods for mass spectrometric data and concluded that the Q-mode analysis provided more significant informtlon. Thus, a Q-mode analysis on the correlation about the origin matrix for correlations between samples has been made (18,19) for aerosol composition data from Boston and St. Louis. [Pg.35]

In the R-mode analysis, the A matrix is obtained and the F matrix is calculated from the data and the A matrix. In the Q-mode analysis the F matrix is initially obtained and the A matrix is calculated. [Pg.35]

Table 9 The factor loading matrix from a Q-mode analysis of the MS data... |

As elucidated by David and co-workers, the breakthrough is combining f -mode (variable) and Q-mode (sample) analysis in one operation that is much simpler than Q-mode analysis alone. The resulting factors, which simplify the description of the cloud of multidimensional data points, represent the combinations of variables that are related to the geochemical processes that cause the measured distributions of the data points. [Pg.37]

The transfonnation matrix L is obtained from a nonnal-mode analysis perfonned in internal coordmates [59, ]. Thus, as the evolution of the nonnal-mode coordinates versus time is evaluated from equation (A3.12.49), displacements in the internal coordinates and a value for q are found from equation (A3.12.50). The variation in q with time results from a superposition of the nonnal modes. At a particular time, the... [Pg.1025]

It is noteworthy that it is the lower cross-over temperature T 2 that is usually measured. The above simple analysis shows that this temperature is determined by the intermolecular vibration frequencies rather than by the properties of the gas-phase reaction complex or by the static barrier. It is not surprising then, that in most solid state reactions the observed value of T 2 is of order of the Debye temperature of the crystal. Although the result (2.77a) has been obtained in the approximation < ojo, the leading exponential term turns out to be exact for arbitrary cu [Benderskii et al. 1990, 1991a]. It is instructive to compare (2.77a) with (2.27) and see that friction slows tunneling down, while the q mode promotes it. [Pg.34]

Fig. 12a, b. Dynamic structure factor for two polyethylene melts of different molecular mass a Mw = 2 x 103 g/mol b Mw = 4.8 x 103 g/mol. The momentum transfers Q are 0.037, 0.055, 0.077, 0.115 and 0.155 A-1 from top to bottom. The solid lines show the result of mode analysis (see text). (Reprinted with permission from [36]. Copyright 1994 American Chemical Society, Washington)... [Pg.29]

Following the mode analysis approach described in Section 3.2.1, the spectra at different molecular masses were fitted with Eqs. (32) and (33). Figure 13 demonstrates the contribution of different modes to the dynamic structure factor for the specimen with molecular mass 3600. Based on the parameters obtained in a common fit using Eq. (32), S(Q,t) was calculated according to an increasing number of mode contributions. [Pg.30]

Gorodetsky, M. L. Ilchenko, V. S., High Q optical whispering gallery microresonators Precession approach for spherical mode analysis and emission patterns with prism couplers, Opt. Commun. 1994, 113, 133 143... [Pg.120]

On the other hand, factor analysis involves other manipulations of the eigen vectors and aims to gain insight into the structure of a multidimensional data set. The use of this technique was first proposed in biological structure-activity relationship (i. e., SAR) and illustrated with an analysis of the activities of 21 di-phenylaminopropanol derivatives in 11 biological tests [116-119, 289]. This method has been more commonly used to determine the intrinsic dimensionality of certain experimentally determined chemical properties which are the number of fundamental factors required to account for the variance. One of the best FA techniques is the Q-mode, which is based on grouping a multivariate data set based on the data structure defined by the similarity between samples [1, 313-316]. It is devoted exclusively to the interpretation of the inter-object relationships in a data set, rather than to the inter-variable (or covariance) relationships explored with R-mode factor analysis. The measure of similarity used is the cosine theta matrix, i. e., the matrix whose elements are the cosine of the angles between all sample pairs [1,313-316]. [Pg.269]

Miesch, A. T. Q-Mode Factor Analysis of Geochemical and Petrologic Data Matrices with Constant Row-Sums,... [Pg.48]

The formulation of the method we have sketched, thus far applied with some approximations, may in principle also be applied to nonpolar solvents. However, there are practical difficulties to overcome. The mode analysis in nonpolar solvents is less developed and experimental data on the dielectric spectra are scarcer. The solution of using computed values of s(m) for the whole spectmm is expensive and computationally delicate. The best way is perhaps to develop for apolar solvents a variant of the reduction of Q(r, r, t) that we have introduced for polar solvents, which takes into account that in nonpolar solvents the interaction is dominated by nonelectrostatic terms. The reformulation of the theory has not yet been attempted, at least by our group, but in recent versions of the continuum ab initio solvation methods there are the elements to develop and test this new implementation. [Pg.19]

We may consider, as a limiting case, the nuclei of a molecule as its fragments. The normal modes of a nucleus a are its translations in three orthogonal directions. As Equation (2.122) remains valid if displacements are replaced by velocities, we can define three normalized vectors Lax, Lay, and Laz. Contracting them with Lsp yields three coefficients caqp, with q = x,y, and z. Their values correspond to those of Lax p, Lay p, and L which result from a normal mode analysis of the molecule. [Pg.228]

Q-mode factor analysis is based on a major product matrix, XX. Whereas the R-mode analyses focus on interrelationships among variables, Q-mode analyses focus on interrelationships among objects. Accordingly, the major product matrix is usually a distance or similarity matrix. Formally, Q-mode and R-mode factor analyses are closely related because the nonzero eigenvalues of the major product matrix are identical to the eigenvalues of the minor product matrix, and the eigenvectors are easily derived from one another (28). [Pg.69]

Aside from principal components, R-mode factor analysis, and Q-mode factor analysis, other techniques that have been used to reduce dimensionality in ungrouped compositional data include multidimensional scaling (34) and correspondence analysis (35). [Pg.69]

Figure 5. Plot of specimens in the example data set plus northern Valley of Guatemala volcanic ash tempers relative to three components defined by Q-mode factor analysis. |

We will proceed, therefore, with an eigenvector analysis of the 5x5 covariance matrix obtained from zero-centred object data. TUs is referred to as Q-mode factor analysis and is complementary to the scheme illustrated pre-... [Pg.84]

As an example of the connection between the dispersion relationship, the calculated spectrum and the observed S (Q,(o) we shall revisit Na[FHF]. The calculations were performed with a density functional theory plane wave code using pseudopotentials [22]. After optimising the geometry, a normal mode analysis was performed on a 16x16x16 grid in the first Brillouin zone. The dispersion curves were also calculated along... [Pg.168]

M.M. Sena, I.S. Scarminio, K.E. Collins, C.H. Collins, Speciation of aqueous chro-mium(VI) solutions with the aid of Q-mode factor analysis followed by oblique projection, Talanta 53 (2000) 453. [Pg.141]

Q. Cui and I. Bahar (Eds.), Normal mode analysis Theory and applications to biological and chemical systems, CRC Press, London, 2005. [Pg.265]

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