Rauhelleren is not an economically viable option, since the cost of energy produced by the hydrogen-based power system is almost 3.5 times higher and its total net present cost is 2.7 times higher compared to the already existing power system. [Pg.125]

Alternatively one may also use a cost-benefit ratio formula. In this case a quotient of the net present benefits and the net present costs is calculated. If the ratio is >1 the social benefits outweigh the cost. The bigger the ratio, the better the project. [Pg.410]

Appraisal activity, if performed, is the step in the field life cycle between the discovery of a hydrocarbon accumulation and its development. The role of appraisal is to provide cost-effective information with which the subsequent decision can be made. Cost effective means that the value of the decision with the appraisal information is greater than the value of the decision without the information. If the appraisal activity does not add more value than its cost, then it is not worth doing. This can be represented by a simple flow diagram, in which the cost of appraisal is A, the profit (net present value) of the development with the appraisal information is (D2-A), and the profit of the development without the appraisal information is D1. [Pg.173]

The type of development, type and number of development wells, recovery factor and production profile are all inter-linked. Their dependency may be estimated using the above approach, but lends itself to the techniques of reservoir simulation introduced in Section 8.4. There is never an obvious single development plan for a field, and the optimum plan also involves the cost of the surface facilities required. The decision as to which development plan is the best is usually based on the economic criterion of profitability. Figure 9.1 represents a series of calculations, aimed at determining the optimum development plan (the one with the highest net present value, as defined in Section 13). [Pg.214]

Keywords economic model, shareholder s profit, project cashflow, gross revenue, discounted cashflow, opex, capex, technical cost, tax, royalty, oil price, marker crude, capital allowance, discount rate, profitability indicators, net present value, rate of return, screening, ranking, expected monetary value, exploration decision making. [Pg.303]

Wells are worked over to increase production, reduce operating cost or reinstate their technical integrity. In terms of economics alone (neglecting safety aspects) a workover can be justified if the net present value of the workover activity is positive (and assuming no other constraints exist). The appropriate discount rate is the company s cost of capital. [Pg.353]

The relationships among the various annual costs given by Eqs. (9-1) through (9-9) are illustrated diagrammaticaUy in Fig. 9-1. The top half of the diagram shows the tools of the accountant the bottom half, those of the engineer. The net annual cash flow Acp, which excludes any provision for balance-sheet depreciation Abd, is used in two of the more modern methods of profitability assessment the net-present-value (NPV) method and the discounted-cash-flow-rate-of-return (DCFRR) method. In both methods, depreciation is inherently taken care of by calculations which include capital recoveiy. [Pg.804]

FIG. 9-1 Relationship between annual costs, annual profits, and cash flows for a project. A d — annual depreciation allowance Acf — annual net cash flow after tax Ac/ = annual cash income Age = annual general expense Aqp = annual gross profit A/r = annual tax A e = annual manufacturing cost Avc/ = annual net cash income Avvp = annual net profit after taxes A/ p = annual net profit As = annual sales Apc = annual total cost (DCFRR) = discoiinted-cash-flow rate of return (NPV) = net present value. [Pg.804]

Example 2 Net Present Value for Different Depreciation Methods The following data descrihe a project. Revenue from annual sales and the total annual expense over a 10-year period are given in the first three columns of Table 9-5. The fixed-capital investment Cpc is 1,000,000. Plant items have a zero salvage value. Working capital C vc is 90,000, and cost of land C/ is 10,000. There are no tax allowances other than depreciation i.e., is zero. The fractional tax rate t is 0.50. [Pg.814]

The discounted-cash-flow rate of return (DCFRR) and net present value (NPV) are functions of the cumulative revenue from annual sales X AfE and the fixed-capital cost of the plant Cfc, among other factors. [Pg.823]

Cost of Capital The value of the interest rate of return used in calculating the net present value (NPV) of a project is usually referred to as the cost of capital. It is not a constant value since it depends on the financial structure of the company, the policy of the company toward a particular project, the local method of assessing taxation, and, in some cases, the measure of risk associated with the particular projec t. The last-named fac tor is best dealt with by calculating the entrepreneurs risk allowance inherent in the project i from Eq. (9-108), written in the form... [Pg.845]

If an option proves to be technically ineffective or inappropriate, it is deleted from the list of potential alternatives. Either follo ving or concurrent with the technical evaluation, an economic study is performed, weighing standard measures of profitability such as payback period, investment returns, and net present value. Many of these costs (or, more appropriately, cost saving may be substantial yet are difficult to quantify. (Refer to Economic Considerations Associated with Pollution Prevention.)... [Pg.2167]

Now that you have determined the likely savings in terms of annual process and waste-treatment operating costs associated with each option, consider the necessary investment required to implement each option. Investment can be assessed by looking at the payback period for each option that is, the time taken for a project to recover its financial outlay. A more detailed investment analysis may involve an assessment of the internal rate of return (IRR) and net present value (NPV) of the investment based on discounted cash flows. An analysis of investment risk allows you to rank the options identified. [Pg.383]

Capital investment decisions are best made within the context of a life-cycle cost analysis. Life-cycle cost analysis focuses on the costs incurred over the life of the investment, assuming only candidate investments are considered that meet minimally acceptable performance standards in terms of the non-inonetary impacts of the investment. Using life-cycle analysis, the capital investment decision takes into account not just the initial acquisition or purchase cost, but maintenance, energy use, the expected life of the investment, and the opportunity cost of capital. When revenue considerations are prominent, an alternative method of analysis such as net benefit or net present value may be preferred. [Pg.216]

Textbooks on investment present a simple model where the net present value (NPV) of an investment equals annual future revenues [R) summed and discounted at the rate r, minus the initial investment cost, I. Using t as a time subscript to denote different years, the equation is... [Pg.377]

The efficient heat pump reduces energy use by 1,676 kWh per year on average. Is the efficient model heat pump a good investment Suppose the incremental cost of the efficient unit, as compared with the less efficient unit, is 1,000, and electricity cost 10 cents per kWh. With this price of electricity, the efficient heat pump reduces electricity costs by 167.60 per year. Taking a simplified approach for purposes of illustration and assuming that each unit lasts indefinitely and has no repair, maintenance, or replacement costs, and ignoring possible tax effects, the internal rate of return may be calculated as 1,000= 167.60/r, which is 16.76 percent per year. If the household can borrow money at, say, 10 percent per year and earn 16.76 percent, the investment makes economic sense. If we assume a 10 percent discount rate, the present value of the investment is 1,676, which exceeds the initial investment cost. The net present value is 676, which indicates that the investment is feasible. [Pg.378]

Estimate maintenance costs at present values for each system (e.g. by using net present value). [Pg.135]

The maintenance costs and the initial cost are frequently assessed as the Net Present Value (N) which represents the sum of money that must be set aside to now cover both initial and maintenance costs over the total life required. [Pg.1385]

Once values have been assigned for the costs and benefits of each proposed risk-reduction modification, a variety of economic evaluation techniques may be used to choose the most attractive option. These techniques include net present value, discounted cash flow rate of return and cost-benefit ratio analyses. Most companies have a preferred method for evaluating project economics, which can be used with little or no modification. Chapter 8 of... [Pg.117]

Inflation depreciates money in a manner similar to, but different from, the idea of discounting to allow for the time value of money. The effect of inflation on the net cash flow in future years can be allowed for in a similar manner to the net present worth calculation given by equation 6.9, using an inflation rate in place of, or added to, the discount rate r. However, the difficulty is to decide what the inflation rate is likely to be in future years. Also, inflation may well affect the sales price, operating costs and raw material prices differently. One approach is to argue that a decision between alternative projects made without formally considering the effect of inflation on future earnings will still be correct, as inflation is likely to affect the predictions made for both projects in a similar way. [Pg.274]

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