For instance, for the third-order complex system, Equation (3.133) and Equation (3.134) give ... [Pg.183]

Equation (C3.5.3) shows tire VER lifetime can be detennined if tire quantum mechanical force-correlation Emotion is computed. However, it is at present impossible to compute tliis Emotion accurately for complex systems. It is straightforward to compute tire classical force-correlation Emotion using classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Witli tire classical force-correlation function, a quantum correction factor Q is needed 5,... [Pg.3036]

This method has a simple straightforward logic for even complex systems. Multinested loops are handled like ordinary branched systems, and it can be extended easily to handle dynamic analysis. However, a huge number of equations is involved. The number of unknowns to be solved is roughly equal to six times the number of node points. Therefore, in a simple three-anchor system, the number of equations to be solved in the flexibiUty method is only 12, whereas the number of equations involved in the direct stiffness method can be substantially larger, depending on the actual number of nodes. [Pg.63]

Mathematical and Computational Implementation. Solution of the complex systems of partial differential equations governing both the evolution of pollutant concentrations and meteorological variables, eg, winds, requires specialized mathematical techniques. Comparing the two sets of equations governing pollutant dynamics (eq. 5) and meteorology (eqs. 12—14) shows that in both cases they can be put in the form ... [Pg.384]

Time reversibility. Newton s equation is reversible in time. Eor a numerical simulation to retain this property it should be able to retrace its path back to the initial configuration (when the sign of the time step At is changed to —At). However, because of chaos (which is part of most complex systems), even modest numerical errors make this backtracking possible only for short periods of time. Any two classical trajectories that are initially very close will eventually exponentially diverge from one another. In the same way, any small perturbation, even the tiny error associated with finite precision on the computer, will cause the computer trajectories to diverge from each other and from the exact classical trajectory (for examples, see pp. 76-77 in Ref. 6). Nonetheless, for short periods of time a stable integration should exliibit temporal reversibility. [Pg.51]

Physical modeling involves searching for the same or nearly the same similarity criteria for the model and the real process. The full-scale process is modeled on an increasing scale with the principal linear dimensions scaled-up in proportion, based on the similarity principle. For relatively simple systems, the similarity criteria and physical modeling are acceptable because the number of criteria involved is limited. For complex systems and processes involving a complex system of equations, a large set of similarity criteria is required, which are not simultaneously compatible and, as a consequence, cannot be realized. [Pg.1037]

This level of simplicity is not the usual case in the systems that are of interest to chemical engineers. The complexity we will encounter will be much higher and will involve more detailed issues on the right-hand side of the equations we work with. Instead of a constant or some explicit function of time, the function will be an explicit function of one or more key characterizing variables of the system and implicit in time. The reason for this is that of cause. Time in and of itself is never a physical or chemical cause—it is simply the independent variable. When we need to deal with the analysis of more complex systems the mechanism that causes the change we are modeling becomes all important. Therefore we look for descriptions that will be dependent on the mechanism of change. In fact, we can learn about the mechanism of... [Pg.113]

In principle, given expressions for the crystallization kinetics and solubility of the system, equation 9.1 can be solved (along with its auxiliary equations -Chapter 3) to predict the performance of continuous crystallizers, at either steady- or unsteady-state (Chapter 7). As is evident, however, the general population balance equations are complex and thus numerical methods are required for their general solution. Nevertheless, some useful analytic solutions for design purposes are available for particular cases. [Pg.264]

An unactivated aryl fluorine may be activated by complexauon with chro-mium(VI). Replacement of the fluonne in the complexed system occurs readily, and the uncomplexetl aromatic product can be generated by treatment with iodine [84] (equation 46)... [Pg.515]

This procedure constitutes an application of the steady-state approximation [also called the quasi-steady-state approximation, the Bodenstein approximation, or the stationary-state hypothesis]. It is a powerful method for the simplification of complicated rate equations, but because it is an approximation, it is not always valid. Sometimes the inapplicability of the steady-state approximation is easily detected for example, Eq. (3-143) predicts simple first-order behavior, and significant deviation from this behavior is evidence that the approximation cannot be applied. In more complex systems the validity of the steady-state approximation may be difficult to assess. Because it is an approximation in wide use, much critical attention has been directed to the steady-state hypothesis. [Pg.101]

Iav89b] Lavallee, P, J.P.Boon and A.Noullez, Lattice Boltzman equation for laminar boundary flow, Complex Systems 3 (1989) 317-330. [Pg.771]

For more complex systems, e.g., for the exchange of ions with different charges equations similar to Eq. (3.5) are used [53]. [Pg.19]

In computer operations with other kinetic systems, Equation 8 may be used, and all the unique features of the kinetic system may be incorporated into the value of Q which may of course be a very complex expression. This technique is of interest only in that it simplifies the work necessary to analyze data using any specific kinetics for a chemical reaction. The technique requires sectioning the catalyst bed in most cases with normal space velocities, 50-100 sections which require 2-3 min of time on a small computer, appear to be sufficient even when very complex equations are used. [Pg.73]

One of the possibilities is to study experimentally the coupled system as a whole, at a time when all the reactions concerned are taking place. On the basis of the data obtained it is possible to solve the system of differential equations (1) simultaneously and to determine numerical values of all the parameters unknown (constants). This approach can be refined in that the equations for the stoichiometrically simple reactions can be specified in view of the presumed mechanism and the elementary steps so that one obtains a very complex set of different reaction paths with many unidentifiable intermediates. A number of procedures have been suggested to solve such complicated systems. Some of them start from the assumption of steady-state rates of the individual steps and they were worked out also for stoichiometrically not simple reactions [see, e.g. (8, 9, 5a)]. A concise treatment of the properties of the systems of consecutive processes has been written by Noyes (10). The simplification of the treatment of some complex systems can be achieved by using isotopically labeled compounds (8, 11, 12, 12a, 12b). Even very complicated systems which involve non-... [Pg.3]

Very complex systems of equations can be handled this allows interactions to be studied that elude those who simplify equations to make them manageable at the paper and pencil level." ... [Pg.41]

In Section 1.4, the MCT was introduced in general terms as an important numerical tool for studying the relationship of variables in complex systems of equations. Here, the algorithm will be presented in detail, and a more complex example will be worked. [Pg.163]

The flowsheet shown in the introduction and that used in connection with a simulation (Section 1.4) provide insights into the pervasiveness of errors at the source, random errors are experienced as an inherent feature of every measurement process. The standard deviation is commonly substituted for a more detailed description of the error distribution (see also Section 1.2), as this suffices in most cases. Systematic errors due to interference or faulty interpretation cannot be detected by statistical methods alone control experiments are necessary. One or more such primary results must usually be inserted into a more or less complex system of equations to obtain the final result (for examples, see Refs. 23, 91-94, 104, 105, 142. The question that imposes itself at this point is how reliable is the final result Two different mechanisms of action must be discussed ... [Pg.169]

Complex systems can often be represented by linear time-dependent differential equations. These can conveniently be converted to algebraic form using Laplace transformation and have found use in the analysis of dynamic systems (e.g., Coughanowr and Koppel, 1965, Stephanopolous, 1984 and Luyben, 1990). [Pg.80]

The state of stress at a point in a structural member under a complex system of loading is described by the magnitude and direction of the principal stresses. The principal stresses are the maximum values of the normal stresses at the point which act on planes on which the shear stress is zero. In a two-dimensional stress system, Figure 13.2, the principal stresses at any point are related to the normal stresses in the x and y directions ax and ay and the shear stress rxy at the point by the following equation ... [Pg.796]

It can be seen from equation 13.136 that the critical speed of a centrifuge will depend on the mass of the bowl and the magnitude of the restoring force it will also depend on the dimensions of the machine and the length of the spindle. The critical speed of a simple system can be calculated, but for a complex system, such as loaded centrifuges, the critical speed must be determined by experiment. It can be shown that the critical speed of a rotating system corresponds with the natural frequency of vibration of the system. [Pg.883]

The limitation of transfer function representation becomes plain obvious as we tackle more complex problems. For complex systems with multiple inputs and outputs, transfer function matrices can become very clumsy. In the so-called modem control, the method of choice is state space or state variables in time domain—essentially a matrix representation of the model equations. The formulation allows us to make use of theories in linear algebra and differential equations. It is always a mistake to tackle modem control without a firm background in these mathematical topics. For this reason, we will not overreach by doing both the mathematical background and the control together. Without a formal mathematical framework, we will put the explanation in examples as much as possible. The actual state space control has to be delayed until after tackling classical transfer function feedback systems. [Pg.64]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.376 , Pg.377 , Pg.378 ]

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