PAS Photoacoustic spectros- Modulated incident infrared Vibrational states of surface... [Pg.317]

RS Raman spectroscopy [210, 211] Scattered monochromatic visible light shows frequency shifts corresponding to vibrational states of surface material Can observe IR-forbidden absorptions low sensitivity... [Pg.318]

The corresponding fiinctions i-, Xj etc. then define what are known as the normal coordinates of vibration, and the Hamiltonian can be written in tenns of these in precisely the fonn given by equation (AT 1.69). witli the caveat that each tenn refers not to the coordinates of a single particle, but rather to independent coordinates that involve the collective motion of many particles. An additional distinction is that treatment of the vibrational problem does not involve the complications of antisymmetry associated with identical fennions and the Pauli exclusion prmciple. Products of the nonnal coordinate fiinctions neveitlieless describe all vibrational states of the molecule (both ground and excited) in very much the same way that the product states of single-electron fiinctions describe the electronic states, although it must be emphasized that one model is based on independent motion and the other on collective motion, which are qualitatively very different. Neither model faithfully represents reality, but each serves as an extremely usefiil conceptual model and a basis for more accurate calculations. [Pg.35]

Much of the previous section dealt with two-level systems. Real molecules, however, are not two-level systems for many purposes there are only two electronic states that participate, but each of these electronic states has many states corresponding to different quantum levels for vibration and rotation. A coherent femtosecond pulse has a bandwidth which may span many vibrational levels when the pulse impinges on the molecule it excites a coherent superposition of all tliese vibrational states—a vibrational wavepacket. In this section we deal with excitation by one or two femtosecond optical pulses, as well as continuous wave excitation in section A 1.6.4 we will use the concepts developed here to understand nonlinear molecular electronic spectroscopy. [Pg.235]

An alternative perspective is as follows. A 5-frmction pulse in time has an infinitely broad frequency range. Thus, the pulse promotes transitions to all the excited-state vibrational eigenstates having good overlap (Franck-Condon factors) with the initial vibrational state. The pulse, by virtue of its coherence, in fact prepares a coherent superposition of all these excited-state vibrational eigenstates. From the earlier sections, we know that each of these eigenstates evolves with a different time-dependent phase factor, leading to coherent spatial translation of the wavepacket. [Pg.238]

relationship between the bound potential energy surface of an adsorbate and the vibrational states of the molecule that detemiine whether an adsorbate remains on the surface, or whether it desorbs after a period of time. The lifetime of the adsorbed state, r, depends on the size of the well relative to the vibrational energy inlierent in the system, and can be written as... [Pg.295]

PES of neutral molecules to give positive ions is a much older field [ ]. The infomiation is valuable to chemists because it tells one about unoccupied orbitals m the neutral that may become occupied in chemical reactions. Since UV light is needed to ionize neutrals, UV lamps and syncln-otron radiation have been used as well as UV laser light. With suitable electron-energy resolution, vibrational states of the positive ions can be... [Pg.804]

Hamilton C E, Bierbaum V M and Leone S R 1985 Product vibrational state distributions of thermal energy charge transfer reactions determined by laser-induced fluorescence in a flowing afterglow Ar" + CC -> CC (v= 0-6) + Ar J. Chem. Rhys. 83 2284-92... [Pg.821]

interaction region and a late barrier is tliat molecules that fail to dissociate can return to the gas-phase in vibrational states different from the initial, as has been observed experunentally in the H2/CU system [53, ]. To undergo vibrational (de-)excitation, the molecules must round the elbow part way, but fail to go over the barrier, eitlier because it is too high, or because the combination of vibrational and translational motions is such that the molecule moves across rather than over the barrier. Such vibrational excitation and de-excitation constrains the PES in that we require the elbow to have high curvature. Dissociation is not necessary, however, for as we have pointed out, vibrational excitation is observed in the scattering of NO from Ag(l 11) [55]. [Pg.909]

The site specificity of reaction can also be a state-dependent site specificity, that is, molecules incident in different quantum states react more readily at different sites. This has recently been demonstrated by Kroes and co-workers for the Fl2/Cu(100) system [66]. Additionally, we can find reactivity dominated by certain sites, while inelastic collisions leading to changes in the rotational or vibrational states of the scattering molecules occur primarily at other sites. This spatial separation of the active site according to the change of state occurring (dissociation, vibrational excitation etc) is a very surface specific phenomenon. [Pg.911]

A situation that arises from the intramolecular dynamics of A and completely distinct from apparent non-RRKM behaviour is intrinsic non-RRKM behaviour [9], By this, it is meant that A has a non-random P(t) even if the internal vibrational states of A are prepared randomly. This situation arises when transitions between individual molecular vibrational/rotational states are slower than transitions leading to products. As a result, the vibrational states do not have equal dissociation probabilities. In tenns of classical phase space dynamics, slow transitions between the states occur when the reactant phase space is metrically decomposable [13,14] on the timescale of the imimolecular reaction and there is at least one bottleneck [9] in the molecular phase space other than the one defining the transition state. An intrinsic non-RRKM molecule decays non-exponentially with a time-dependent unimolecular rate constant or exponentially with a rate constant different from that of RRKM theory. [Pg.1011]

As discussed in section A3.12.2. intrinsic non-RRKM behaviour occurs when there is at least one bottleneck for transitions between the reactant molecule s vibrational states, so drat IVR is slow and a microcanonical ensemble over the reactant s phase space is not maintained during the unimolecular reaction. The above discussion of mode-specific decomposition illustrates that there are unimolecular reactions which are intrinsically non-RRKM. Many van der Waals molecules behave in this maimer [4,82]. For example, in an initial microcanonical ensemble for the ( 211 )2 van der Waals molecule both the C2H4—C2H4 intennolecular modes and C2H4 intramolecular modes are excited with equal probabilities. However, this microcanonical ensemble is not maintained as the dimer dissociates. States with energy in the intermolecular modes react more rapidly than do those with the C2H4 intramolecular modes excited [85]. [Pg.1037]

Troe J 1995 Simplified models for anharmonic numbers and densities of vibrational states. I. Application to NO2 and Chem. Phys. 190 381-92... [Pg.1041]

Quack M 1981 Faraday Discuss. Chem. Soc. 71 309-11, 325-6, 359-64 (Discussion contributions on flexible transition states and vibrationally adiabatic models statistical models in laser chemistry and spectroscopy normal, local, and global vibrational states)... [Pg.1089]

In this section we concentrate on the electronic and vibrational parts of the wavefimctions. It is convenient to treat the nuclear configuration in temis of nomial coordinates describing the displacements from the equilibrium position. We call these nuclear nomial coordinates Q- and use the symbol Q without a subscript to designate the whole set. Similarly, the symbol v. designates the coordinates of the th electron and v the whole set of electronic coordinates. We also use subscripts 1 and ii to designate the lower and upper electronic states of a transition, and subscripts a and b to number the vibrational states in the respective electronic states. The total wavefiinction f can be written... [Pg.1127]

This last transition moment integral, if plugged into equation (B 1.1.2). will give the integrated intensity of a vibronic band, i.e. of a transition starting from vibrational state a of electronic state 1 and ending on vibrational level b of electronic state u. [Pg.1128]

Atoms have complete spherical synnnetry, and the angidar momentum states can be considered as different synnnetry classes of that spherical symmetry. The nuclear framework of a molecule has a much lower synnnetry. Synnnetry operations for the molecule are transfonnations such as rotations about an axis, reflection in a plane, or inversion tlnough a point at the centre of the molecule, which leave the molecule in an equivalent configuration. Every molecule has one such operation, the identity operation, which just leaves the molecule alone. Many molecules have one or more additional operations. The set of operations for a molecule fonn a mathematical group, and the methods of group theory provide a way to classify electronic and vibrational states according to whatever symmetry does exist. That classification leads to selection rules for transitions between those states. A complete discussion of the methods is beyond the scope of this chapter, but we will consider a few illustrative examples. Additional details will also be found in section A 1.4 on molecular symmetry. [Pg.1134]

In the Bom-Oppenlieimer approxunation the vibronic wavefrmction is a product of an electronic wavefimction and a vibrational wavefunction, and its syimnetry is the direct product of the synuuetries of the two components. We have just discussed the synuuetries of the electronic states. We now consider the syimnetry of a vibrational state. In the hanuonic approximation vibrations are described as independent motions along nonual modes Q- and the total vibrational wavefrmction is a product of frmctions, one wavefunction for each nonual mode ... [Pg.1137]

Each such nonual mode can be assigned a synuuetry in the point group of the molecule. The wavefrmctions for non-degenerate modes have the following simple synuuetry properties the wavefrmctions with an odd vibrational quantum number v. have the same synuuetry as their nonual mode 2the ones with an even v. are totally symmetric. The synuuetry of the total vibrational wavefrmction (Q) is tlien the direct product of the synuuetries of its constituent nonual coordinate frmctions (p, (2,). In particular, the lowest vibrational state. [Pg.1137]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.193 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.108 , Pg.274 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.355 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.71 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.193 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.49 , Pg.50 , Pg.57 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.9 ]

© 2019 chempedia.info