There are two main applications for such real-time analysis. The first is the detemiination of the chemical reaction kinetics. Wlien the sample temperature is ramped linearly with time, the data of thickness of fomied phase together with ramped temperature allows calculation of the complete reaction kinetics (that is, both the activation energy and tlie pre-exponential factor) from a single sample [6], instead of having to perfomi many different temperature ramps as is the usual case in differential themial analysis [7, 8, 9, 10 and H]. The second application is in detemiining the... [Pg.1835]

It is imperative that any HDR reservoir be created in rock which is free of natural faults. This can be accompHshed by a thorough geologic study of a rock body prior to creation of an HDR reservoir within it, by close control of the hydrofracturing operation, and through real-time analysis of microearthquake data arising from joint opening to assure that the HDR reservoir stays within known bounds. [Pg.272]

THE LIFE-TIME ANALYSIS OF ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF HUMAN LIVER PUNCTURES (SRXRF)... [Pg.387]

If further resolution is necessary one-third octave filters can be used but the number of required measurements is most unwieldy. It may be necessary to record the noise onto tape loops for the repeated re-analysis that is necessary. One-third octave filters are commonly used for building acoustics, and narrow-band real-time analysis can be employed. This is the fastest of the methods and is the most suitable for transient noises. Narrow-band analysis uses a VDU to show the graphical results of the fast Fourier transform and can also display octave or one-third octave bar graphs. [Pg.653]

As a consequence, good, safe, steam-sampling points are required, and automatic, real-time continuous analyzer systems for monitoring of steam and condensate quality are very useful. These requirements usually are not a problem in larger power and process HP boiler plants. Here, each facility tends to have a unique combination of operating conditions and waterside chemistry circumstances that necessitate the provision of a steady stream of reliable operational data, and this can be obtained realistically only from continuous, real-time analysis. [Pg.600]

The magnitude of t0 can be measured from the intercept of a f(a)—time plot. The existence of the induction period can introduce uncertainty into a reduced time analysis if the temperature coefficient of t0 differs from that later applicable, and it is necessary to plot (t — t0)/(tb — t0) against a where tb is the time at which the selected common value of a is attained. The occurrence of a slow initial process can be reflected in deviations from linearity in the f(a) time plot, though in favourable systems the contribution may be subtracted before analysis [40]. [Pg.80]

Assuming an input flux equal to oceanic evaporation, this would give a turnover time of about 750 years. The turnover time analysis is not strictly correct since freshwater resides in a number of interconnected reservoirs however. [Pg.116]

These methods, when combined with real-time analysis of cell response (Omann and Sklar, this volume), also permit a quantitative analysis of the relationship between receptor occupancy and cell response. [Pg.65]

Spectroscopy. A whole variety of speetroscopie methods are available ineluding IR, microwave, Raman and X-ray spectroscopy. In all these cases real-time analysis gives almost instantaneous feedback of results. [Pg.257]

Sensor-based methods. Whilst many methods use sensors, the simplest being temperature measurement, this terminology is often used to cover viscosity, pH, oxygen and humidity determination, etc. These are true in-line techniques and offer rapid, inexpensive real-time analysis. Humidity determination in drying ovens is a common example. [Pg.257]

As the second-generation device contains integrated reaction and detection units, virtually real-time analysis could be achieved (compare to the delay in analysis for the first generation device described above) ]72-74],... [Pg.416]

Analysis time Analysis mode Management rules... [Pg.617]

Albarede F (1993) Residence time analysis of geochemical fluctuations in volcanic series. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 57 615-621... [Pg.169]

This section presents results of the space-time analysis of the above-mentioned motional processes as obtained by the neutron spin echo technique. First, the entropically determined relaxation processes, as described by the Rouse model, will be discussed. We will then examine how topological restrictions are noticed if the chain length is increased. Subsequently, we address the dynamics of highly entangled systems and, finally, we consider the origin of the entanglements. [Pg.12]

Real- Time Analysis for Pollution Prevention Analytical methodologies need to be further developed to allow for real-time, in-process monitoring and control prior to the formation of hazardous substances. [Pg.321]

If we were to choose the ideal method for the analysis of any component of seawater, it would naturally be an in situ method. Where such a method is possible, the problems of sampling and sample handling are eliminated and in many cases we can obtain continuous profiles rather than limited number of discrete samples. In the absence of an in situ method, the next most acceptable alternative is analysis on board ship. A real-time analysis not only permits us to choose our next sampling station on the basis of the results of the last station, it also avoids the problem of the storage of samples until the return to a shore laboratory. [Pg.37]

Sakamoto et al. [143] described an automated, near real-time analysis with microprocessor-controlled syringe pump modules for the determination of... [Pg.94]

Information about the state of an interaction can be achieved by a multitude of different readouts. Most of them are based on spectroscopical properties of the biomolecules or the labels introduced and allow real time analysis of the reactions. In some cases samples have to be retained and the analysis has to be performed subsequently. [Pg.76]

Figure 3.1 shows a typical laboratory flow reactor for the study of catalytic kinetics. A gas chromatograph (GC, lower shelf) and a flow meter allow the complete analysis of samples of product gas (analysis time is typically several minutes), and the determination of the molar flow rate of various species out of the reactor (R) contained in a furnace. A mass spectrometer (MS, upper shelf) allows real-time analysis of the product gas sampled just below the catalyst charge and can follow rapid changes in rate. Automated versions of such reactor assemblies are commercially available. [Pg.46]

KEYWORDS laser ablation, LIBS, ICP-MS, real-time analysis, instrumentation... [Pg.295]

Local sensitivity analysis and Morris One-At-A-Time analysis were performed on the simple model, and showed... [Pg.1]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.294 , Pg.296 , Pg.301 ]

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