FIGURE 3.20 Trace of half a cone of depression showing variations in drawdown with distances from a pumping well. [Pg.69]

Use of these assumptions is necessary to limit the number of variable parameters that must be considered in the equations. Calculation of the response of an aquifer that is not homogeneous, isotropic, or infinite in extent becomes very complex. Many complex situations are better suited to sophisticated computer simulations. [Pg.69]

Certain factors must, however, be considered in choosing the appropriate analytical solution unconsolidated vs. consolidated conditions, fully vs. partially penetrating wells, variable discharge rules, delayed yield, and aquifer boundaries. Most methods are best suited for unconsolidated aquifers with well-defined overlying and underlying boundaries, whereas with consolidated aquifers, the effective aquifer thickness is uncertain. A pumping well that fully penetrates a confined aquifer (i.e., [Pg.69]

General Equation American Units General Equation American Units [Pg.70]

The described scheme can also be incorporated into iterative algorithms and used to solve steady-state flow problems (Zienkiewicz and Wu, 1991). [Pg.139]

Entrance flow is also accompanied by the growth of a boundary layer (Fig. 5b). As the boundary layer grows to fill the duct, the initially flat velocity profile is altered to yield the profile characteristic of steady-state flow in the downstream duct. For laminar flow in a tube, the distance required for the velocity at the center line to reach 99% of its asymptotic values is given by... [Pg.91]

A separate equation is obtained for each component i Consider the important case of steady-state flow of a single fluid through the pipe section of Figure 21b, where the flow is taken to be perpendicular to the cross sections and Making use of the concept of average velocity ... [Pg.107]

Testers are available to measure the permeabihty and compressibiUty of powders and other bulk soflds (6). Erom such tests critical, steady-state flow rates through various outlet sizes in mass flow bins can be calculated. With this information, an engineer can determine the need for changing the outlet size and/or installing an air permeation system to increase the flow rate. Furthermore, the optimum number and location of air permeation levels can be deterrnined, along with an estimate of air flow requirements. [Pg.561]

Pipe Flow For steady-state flow through a constant diameter duct, the mass flux G is constant and the governing steady-state momentum balance is ... [Pg.2293]

Consider a eonstant pressure, steady-state flow proeess with an inflow of reaetant in seetion (1) and die outflow of die produet in seetion (2) leaving die system boundary (i.e., a ehemieal reaetor). [Pg.430]

The general case is that of steady-state flow, and the thermal conductivity factor is a function of the temperature. In the unsteady state the temperature of the system changes with time, and energy is stored in the system or released from the system reduced. The storage capacity is... [Pg.110]

The iiitemil energy and entlialpy in Eqs. (4.5.2) uid (4.5.3), as well as in tlie other equations in tliis discussion, may be on a mass or a mole basis, or tliey may represent the total internal energy and entlialpy of tlie entire system. Most industrial facilities operate in a steady-state flow mode. If no significant mechanical or shaft work is added or withdrawn from tlie system, Eq. (4.5.3) reduces to... [Pg.121]

Under the steady-state flow conditions, there is an increasing tendency of this fiberlike structure moving toward the capillary wall as shear stress, flow flux, and radial position increase. In fact, we often obtained extru-dates with a very thin TLCP-rich skin layer from the capillary test [8]. [Pg.686]

Referring to Figure 2-35 (process diagram), the first law for this steady-state flow system becomes... [Pg.221]

A special case of the above equation applies to a continuous steady-state flow process when all of the rate terms are independent of time and the accumulation term is zero. Thus, the differential material balance for any component i in such a process is given by... [Pg.333]

For a steady-state flow, Equation 4-102 is often written as an explicit equation for the pressure gradient. This is... [Pg.834]

Quite specific effects in the flow of dispersions of long fibers are connected with particles orientation in the flow. Indeed, the state of fibers during the flow changes greatly as compared the initial state, so that the material in a steady-state flow is an anisotropic medium. Therefore the viscosity of such a suspension may become independent of a fiber s length [30], The most strong effects caused by a deformation of anisotropic particles should be expected in transient flows, in particular if the particles themselves are flexible and deformed in the flow. [Pg.89]

In steady state flow over a plane surface, or close to the wall for flow in a pipe, u is constant and equation 12.26 can be integrated provided that the relation between XE and y is known. XE will increase with y and, if a linear relation is assumed, then ... [Pg.704]

A liquid is in steady state flow in an open trough of rectangular cross-section inclined at an angle f) to the horizontal. On what variables would you expect the mass flow per unit time to depend Obtain the dimensionless groups which are applicable to this problem. [Pg.826]

The behavior of liquid flow in micro-tubes and channels depends not only on the absolute value of the viscosity but also on its dependence on temperature. The nonlinear character of this dependence is a source of an important phenomenon - hydrodynamic thermal explosion, which is a sharp change of flow parameters at small temperature disturbances due to viscous dissipation. This is accompanied by radical changes of flow characteristics. Bastanjian et al. (1965) showed that under certain conditions the steady-state flow cannot exist, and an oscillatory regime begins. [Pg.130]

Equations (1.1) to (1.3) are diflerent ways of expressing the overall mass balance for a flow system with variable inventory. In steady-state flow, the derivatives vanish, the total mass in the system is constant, and the overall mass balance simply states that input equals output. In batch systems, the flow terms are zero, the time derivative is zero, and the total mass in the system remains constant. We will return to the general form of Equation (1.3) when unsteady reactors are treated in Chapter 14. Until then, the overall mass balance merely serves as a consistency check on more detailed component balances that apply to individual substances. [Pg.2]

Application of the general component balance, Equation (1.6), to a steady-state flow system gives... [Pg.19]

Nakajima, N. and Harrell, E.R., Analyzing steady-state flow of elastomers. Encyclopaedia of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 7, Gulf Publishing, Houston, 1988, pp. 703-723, Chapter 24. [Pg.799]

Steady state flow occurs transient behavior is not analyzed. [Pg.523]

The reactions were carried out in the steady state flow mode as described previously [11]. Differential kinetics were determined from plots of conversion vs. W/F. Three catalysts CoZSM-5, HZSM-5 and NaZSM-5 (Si/AI = 11) were studied in this work. The catalyst preparation and the standard pretreatment used prior to reaction have been described previously [11]. It involved dehydration in flowing dried 0 as the temperature was raised slowly to 500°C. The feed comprised CH4 (0.28%), NO (0.21 %) or NOj (0.21 %). and/or Oj (2.6%) in He. The flow rate was 75 ml/min and the gas hour space velocity (GHSV) was varied between 4,500 and 250,000 h by changing the weight of catalyst samples. [Pg.652]

In the articles cited above, the studies were restricted to steady-state flows, and steady-state solutions could be determined for the range of Reynolds numbers considered. Experimental work on flow and heat transfer in sinusoidally curved channels was conducted by Rush et al. [121]. Their results indicate heat-transfer enhancement and do not show evidence of a Nusselt number reduction in any range... [Pg.186]

One of the basic principles of modelling is that of the conservation of mass. For a steady-state flow process, this can be expressed by the statement ... [Pg.15]

We will now describe the basic hydrodynamic relationships applicable in the case of steady-state flow in which the Eulerian velocity field is time-independent and written as v(r). Here the rate of strain elements are given by [1]... [Pg.187]

Benedek, P. (ed.) (1980) Steady-state Flow-sheeting of Chemical Plants (Elsevier). [Pg.187]

Compliance with U.S. EPA s design performance standards can be demonstrated through one-dimensional, steady-state flow calculations, instead of field tests. For detection sensitivity, the calculation of flow rates should assume uniform top liner leakage. For detection time, factors such as drain spacing, drainage media, bottom slope, and top and bottom liners should all be considered, and the worst-case leakage scenario calculated. [Pg.1100]

A radically different approach to the steady-state problem was investigated by Hsing (H6). In this approach the steady-state flow problem was formulated as the following constrained minimization problem ... [Pg.159]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.6 , Pg.471 ]

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