To a good analogy, before the invention of STM, the determination of surface structure was similar to the case of speculating on the landscape of a planet from information taken through an astronomical telescope. In analogy to spacecraft, the STM sends electrons to the vicinity of the planets to take direct, close-up photographs. [Pg.325]

We have already discussed the determination of the Si(lll)-7 X 7 structure in Section 1.3. The example we are going to present, the Au(lll)-22 X structure, is equally interesting. [Pg.326]

On the domain boundary between the fee stacking and the hep stacking, the Au atoms are squeezed out from the original position to make two ridges per unit cell. The consequences of this model are in good agreement with their helium scattering data. In 1985, STM was already 3 years old. It was believed at that time the ultimate resolution of STM on metals was 6 A, which would be insufficient to resolve the atomic structure on Au(l 11). [Pg.327]

This work is the first demonstration that STM can determine the positions of individual atoms on metal surfaces. Therefore, the STM can be used to study lattice defects at metal surfaces with atomic resolution, a subject of considerable importance in the study of crystal growth. [Pg.328]

Lattice models have been studied in mean field approximation, by transfer matrix methods and Monte Carlo simulations. Much interest has focused on the occurrence of a microemulsion. Its location in the phase diagram between the oil-rich and the water-rich phases, its structure and its wetting properties have been explored [76]. Lattice models reproduce the reduction of the surface tension upon adsorption of the amphiphiles and the progression of phase equilibria upon increasmg the amphiphile concentration. Spatially periodic (lamellar) phases are also describable by lattice models. Flowever, the structure of the lattice can interfere with the properties of the periodic structures. [Pg.2380]

Two point defects may aggregate to give a defect pair (such as when the two vacanc that constitute a Schottky defect come from neighbouring sites). Ousters of defects ( also form. These defect clusters may ultimately give rise to a new periodic structure oi an extended defect such as a dislocation. Increasing disorder may alternatively give j to a random, amorphous solid. As the properties of a material may be dramatically alte by the presence of defects it is obviously of great interest to be able to imderstand th relationships and ultimately predict them. However, we will restrict our discussion small concentrations of defects. [Pg.639]

Parameters measured Surface topography (rms roughness, rms slope, and power spectrum of structure) scattered light line shape of periodic structure (width, side wall angle, height, and period)... [Pg.54]

A,/2 for topography characterization much smaller for periodic structure characterization (A, is the laser wavelength used to illuminate the sample)... [Pg.54]

Topography characterization of nominally smooth surftices process control when characterizing periodic structure can be applied in situ in some cases rapid amenable to automation... [Pg.54]

K. C. Hickman, S. M. Caspar, S. S. H. Naqvi, K. P. Bishop, J. R, McNeil, G. D. Tipton, B. R, Stallard, and B. L. Draper. Use of Diffraction From Latent Images to Improve Lithogrophy Control. Presented at the SPIE Technical Conference 1464 Symposium on I.C. Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control, San Jose, CA, 1991, Proc. SPIE. 1464, pp. 245-257, 1991. Another application is presented of scattering characterization and modeling from periodic structures for process control. [Pg.722]

Structurally, carbon nanotubes of small diameter are examples of a onedimensional periodic structure along the nanotube axis. In single wall carbon nanotubes, confinement of the stnreture in the radial direction is provided by the monolayer thickness of the nanotube in the radial direction. Circumferentially, the periodic boundary condition applies to the enlarged unit cell that is formed in real space. The application of this periodic boundary condition to the graphene electronic states leads to the prediction of a remarkable electronic structure for carbon nanotubes of small diameter. We first present... [Pg.69]

In this paper, we review progress in the experimental detection and theoretical modeling of the normal modes of vibration of carbon nanotubes. Insofar as the theoretical calculations are concerned, a carbon nanotube is assumed to be an infinitely long cylinder with a mono-layer of hexagonally ordered carbon atoms in the tube wall. A carbon nanotube is, therefore, a one-dimensional system in which the cyclic boundary condition around the tube wall, as well as the periodic structure along the tube axis, determine the degeneracies and symmetry classes of the one-dimensional vibrational branches [1-3] and the electronic energy bands[4-12]. [Pg.129]

V. Triply Periodic Structures Generated from the Basic Model 702... [Pg.685]

In the Fourier space, the order parameter 0(r) for periodic structures is approximated by the Fourier series... [Pg.693]

V. TRIPLY PERIODIC STRUCTURES GENERATED FROM THE BASIC MODEL... [Pg.702]

In this section we characterize the minima of the functional (1) which are triply periodic structures. The essential features of these minima are described by the surface (r) = 0 and its properties. In 1976 Scriven [37] hypothesized that triply periodic minimal surfaces (Table 1) could be used for the description of physical interfaces appearing in ternary mixtures of water, oil, and surfactants. Twenty years later it has been discovered, on the basis of the simple model of microemulsion, that the interface formed by surfactants in the symmetric system (oil-water symmetry) is preferably the minimal surface [14,38,39]. [Pg.702]

For ordered periodic structures of a period A a dimensionless ratio between the two lengths, Ryy = Kyy /, provides an additional characteristic of the structure. On the basis of the results of Ref. 39, we can estimate this ratio for the periodic minimal surfaces. For simple minimal surfaces, P, D, or G [39], we find respectively = 0.306, Ryyi = 0.195, and Ryyi = 0.248. For more complicated periodic structures [39] its value can be even smaller than 0.1 for example, for the surface labeled GX5, Ryy = 0.073. [Pg.736]

The diffusion field just ahead of the solid front can be thought of as containing two ingredients a diffusion layer of thickness associated with global solute rejection, and modulations due to the periodic structure of the solid of extent A (A

Transient length increases to about 10 steps periodic structures (with short periodicity) emerge. [Pg.99]

X (j)) 0.35 Transient length grows significantly a new kind of periodic structure with longer period appears, thereby increasing the spectrum of possible dynamical behaviors. [Pg.99]

Transient length increases to about 60 steps periodic structures of period equal to about 40 steps appear. [Pg.99]

H. Kogclnik, C. V. Shank. Stimulated emission in a periodic structure. Appl. Phys. Lett. 1971, IS,... [Pg.491]

Unlike the heterostructures whose periodic structure must be accurately controlled, the formation of nanocomposite structure is self-organized based upon thermodynamically driven spinodal phase segregation [118-121]. For the CVD... [Pg.157]

Structurally, plastomers straddle the property range between elastomers and plastics. Plastomers inherently contain some level of crystallinity due to the predominant monomer in a crystalline sequence within the polymer chains. The most common type of this residual crystallinity is ethylene (for ethylene-predominant plastomers or E-plastomers) or isotactic propylene in meso (or m) sequences (for propylene-predominant plastomers or P-plastomers). Uninterrupted sequences of these monomers crystallize into periodic strucmres, which form crystalline lamellae. Plastomers contain in addition at least one monomer, which interrupts this sequencing of crystalline mers. This may be a monomer too large to fit into the crystal lattice. An example is the incorporation of 1-octene into a polyethylene chain. The residual hexyl side chain provides a site for the dislocation of the periodic structure required for crystals to be formed. Another example would be the incorporation of a stereo error in the insertion of propylene. Thus, a propylene insertion with an r dyad leads similarly to a dislocation in the periodic structure required for the formation of an iPP crystal. In uniformly back-mixed polymerization processes, with a single discrete polymerization catalyst, the incorporation of these intermptions is statistical and controlled by the kinetics of the polymerization process. These statistics are known as reactivity ratios. [Pg.166]

The common periodic structures displayed by surfaces are described by a two-dimensional lattice. Any point in this lattice is reached by a suitable combination of two basis vectors. Two unit vectors describe the smallest cell in which an identical arrangement of the atoms is found. The lattice is then constructed by moving this unit cell over any linear combination of the unit vectors. These vectors form the Bravais lattices, which is the set of vectors by which all points in the lattice can be reached. [Pg.172]

The Si04 tetrahedra can be arranged into several silicate units, e.g. squares, six-or eight-membered rings, called secondary building blocks. Zeolite structures are then built up by joining a selection of building blocks into periodic structures. [Pg.200]

The same periodic structures can also be formed from alternating AIO4 and PO4 tetrahedra the resulting aluminophosphates are not called zeolites but AlPOs. Zeolites are made by hydrothermal synthesis under pressure in autoclaves, in the presence of template molecules such as tetramethylammonium, which act as structure directing agents. [Pg.200]

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