The Boolean XOR function. Two straight lines are required to divide the area into regions that contain only one type of point. [Pg.24]

Scientific data points usually require curves, several lines, or both to divide them into homogeneous groups. [Pg.25]

Using Artificial Intelligence in Chemistry and Biology A Practical Guide [Pg.26]

The outlined scheme is shown to yield stable solutions for non-zero Weissenberg number flows in a number of benchmark problems (Swarbric and Nassehi, 1992b). However, the extension of this scheme to more complex problems may involve modifications such as increasing of elemental subdivisions for stress calculations from 3 x 3 to 9 x 9 and/or the discretization of the stress field by biquadratic rather than bi-linear sub-elements. It should also be noted that satisfaction of the BB condition in viscoelastic flow simulations that use mixed formulations is not as clear as the case of purely viscous regimes. [Pg.86]

Fiber Analysis. Paper may be composed of one or several types of fibers, eg, animal, vegetable, mineral, and synthetic (see Eibers). Paper is generally composed of woody vegetable fibers obtained from coniferous (softwood) and deciduous (hardwood) trees. QuaUtative and quantitative methods have been developed to determine the fibrous constituents in a sheet of paper (see TAPPI T401). However, the proliferation in the number and types of pulping processes used have made the analysis of paper a much more complex problem. Comprehensive reviews of the methods are given in References 20 and 23. [Pg.11]

According to the aim of the present chapter, let us focus our attention on the academic-theoretical approach. It should be mentioned that in the study of surface reaction processes one frequently has to deal with fairly complex systems. Since the handling of such systems imposes severe problems, the standard procedure is to rationalize their study. The academic approach starts from simplified systems and a reduced number of plausible assumptions, and the goal is to achieve a general solution. The knowledge and understanding of these solutions allows us to undertake specific topics and more complex problems. [Pg.390]

Whereas the main challenge for the first bilayer simulations has been to obtain stable bilayers with properties (e.g., densities) which compare well with experiments, more and more complex problems can be tackled nowadays. For example, lipid bilayers were set up and compared in different phases (the fluid, the gel, the ripple phase) [67,68,76,81]. The formation of large pores and the structure of water in these water channels have been studied [80,81], and the forces acting on lipids which are pulled out of a membrane have been measured [82]. The bilayer systems themselves are also becoming more complex. Bilayers made of complicated amphiphiles such as unsaturated lipids have been considered [83,84]. The effect of adding cholesterol has been investigated [85,86]. An increasing number of studies are concerned with the important complex of hpid/protein interactions [87-89] and, in particular, with the structure of ion channels [90-92]. [Pg.642]

The flow problems considered in previous chapters are concerned with homogeneous fluids, either single phases or suspensions of fine particles whose settling velocities are sufficiently low for the solids to be completely suspended in the fluid. Consideration is now given to the far more complex problem of the flow of multiphase systems in which the composition of the mixture may vary over the cross-section of the pipe or channel furthermore, the components may be moving at different velocities to give rise to the phenomenon of slip between the phases. [Pg.181]

The orientational relaxation, considered in Chapters 6 and 7, is a more complex problem. The impact theory is the only model capable of tracing the transition from quasi-free rotation in the rare gas to... [Pg.7]

Further development of this trend of research is devoted to a more complex problem in which the governing equation acquires the form... [Pg.487]

For more complex problems such as multiple bonds (N2for instance [13-14] and Metal-Metal bonds [15-17]) or extended systems (the K system of cyclic polyenes, among others), the symmetry-breakings may take several forms since one may leave different space-and spin-symmetry constraints independently or simultaneously. For C2for... [Pg.106]

The application of material balances to more complex problems is discussed in Flow-sheeting , Chapter 4. [Pg.34]

Simple material-balance problems involving only a few streams and with a few unknowns can usually be solved by simple direct methods. The relationship between the unknown quantities and the information given can usually be clearly seen. For more complex problems, and for problems with several processing steps, a more formal algebraic approach can be used. The procedure is involved, and often tedious if the calculations have to be done manually, but should result in a solution to even the most intractable problems, providing sufficient information is known. [Pg.42]

The procedure for the solution of unsteady-state balances is to set up balances over a small increment of time, which will give a series of differential equations describing the process. For simple problems these equations can be solved analytically. For more complex problems computer methods would be used. [Pg.54]

The limitation of transfer function representation becomes plain obvious as we tackle more complex problems. For complex systems with multiple inputs and outputs, transfer function matrices can become very clumsy. In the so-called modem control, the method of choice is state space or state variables in time domain—essentially a matrix representation of the model equations. The formulation allows us to make use of theories in linear algebra and differential equations. It is always a mistake to tackle modem control without a firm background in these mathematical topics. For this reason, we will not overreach by doing both the mathematical background and the control together. Without a formal mathematical framework, we will put the explanation in examples as much as possible. The actual state space control has to be delayed until after tackling classical transfer function feedback systems. [Pg.64]

For a more complex problem, the characteristic polynomial will not be as simple, and we need tools to help us. The two techniques that we will learn are the Routh-Hurwitz criterion and root locus. Root locus is, by far, the more important and useful method, especially when we can use a computer. Where circumstances allow (/.< ., the algebra is not too ferocious), we can also find the roots on the imaginary axis—the case of marginal stability. In the simple example above, this is where Kc = a/K. Of course, we have to be smart enough to pick Kc > a/K, and not Kc < a/K. [Pg.126]

Figure 24.15 More complex problems might require a greater number of cooling water mains. |

Figure 26.26 In more complex problems there might be more design intervals. |

Law D H-S., van der Meer LGH., et al. Comparison of numerical simulators for greenhouse gas sequestration in coalbeds, Part III More complex problems. NETL Carbon Sequestration Conference Proceedings. [Pg.173]

So to sum up, if you have a small molecule, a straightforward issue to resolve and a typical 250/400 MHz instrument at your disposal, use an ordinary 1-D NOE. If you have a more complex problem involving multiple sets of NOE data to consider, go for a 2-D method, and if you have a larger molecule and a more powerful spectrometer, go for a ROESY option. [Pg.124]

Indeed, if the problem is simple enough that the connection weights can be found by a few moments work with pencil and paper, there are other computational tools that would be more appropriate than neural networks. It is in more complex problems, in which the relationships that exist between data points are unknown so that it is not possible to determine the connection weights by hand, that an ANN comes into its own. The ANN must then discover the connection weights for itself through a process of supervised learning. [Pg.21]

This chapter treats the descriptions of the molecular events that lead to the kinetic phenomena that one observes in the laboratory. These events are referred to as the mechanism of the reaction. The chapter begins with definitions of the various terms that are basic to the concept of reaction mechanisms, indicates how elementary events may be combined to yield a description that is consistent with observed macroscopic phenomena, and discusses some of the techniques that may be used to elucidate the mechanism of a reaction. Finally, two basic molecular theories of chemical kinetics are discussed—the kinetic theory of gases and the transition state theory. The determination of a reaction mechanism is a much more complex problem than that of obtaining an accurate rate expression, and the well-educated chemical engineer should have a knowledge of and an appreciation for some of the techniques used in such studies. [Pg.76]

Orbital symmetry arguments and EHT calculations have also provided a way of discriminating between axial and apical substitution in the above mentioned case of pentacoordinate phosphorus. This analysis leads the way to more complex problems of coordination around transition metal atoms. [Pg.30]

Specific membrane components must be delivered to their sites of utilization and not left at inappropriate sites [3]. Synaptic vesicles and other materials needed for neurotransmitter release should go to presynaptic terminals because they serve no function in an axon or cell body. The problem is compounded because many presynaptic terminals are not at the end of an axon. Often, numerous terminals occur sequentially along a single axon, making en passant contacts with multiple targets. Thus, synaptic vesicles cannot merely move to the end of axonal MTs. Targeting of synaptic vesicles thus becomes a more complex problem. Similar complexities arise with membrane proteins destined for the axolemma or a nodal membrane. [Pg.493]

As geochemists, we frequently need to describe the chemical states of natural waters, including how dissolved mass is distributed among aqueous species, and to understand how such waters will react with minerals, gases, and fluids of the Earth s crust and hydrosphere. We can readily undertake such tasks when they involve simple chemical systems, in which the relatively few reactions likely to occur can be anticipated through experience and evaluated by hand calculation. As we encounter more complex problems, we must rely increasingly on quantitative models of solution chemistry and irreversible reaction to find solutions. [Pg.1]

Computer software allows the solution of more complex problems that require numerical, as opposed to analytical, techniques. Thus, a student can explore situations that more closely approximate real reactor designs and operating conditions. This includes studying the sensitivity of a calculated result to changing operating conditions. [Pg.683]

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