The sequence of operations involved in a PPP-MO calculation is illustrated in the flow diagram shown in Figure 2.13. The method is illustrated for the case of 4-aminoazobenzene, 15c. The first step involves devising a numbering system for all of the atoms that contribute to the 7r-system of the molecule. Secondly the total number of 7r-electrons in the [Pg.39]

Scheme 4 Conformational isomers obtained by PM-3 MO calculation method and explanation of highly diastereoselective photochemical cyclization of F-3 and F-4. |

Scheme 3 Enantioisomerization process of F-1E calculated by AM-1 semiempi MO calculation method. |

Quantum chemical calculations (see also theory, MO calculation, ah initio methods) Quinghaosu Quinodimethanes [Pg.329]

Th e ability to perform m oleciilar orbital (MO ) calculation s on m et-als is extremely useliil because molecular mechanics methods are gen erally unable to treat m etals. This is becau se m etals h ave a wide range of valences, oxidation states, spin multiplicities, and have 1111 usual bonding situations (e.g.. d%-p% back bonding). In addition. the 11 on direction al n at are o ( m etallic hon din g is less am en a-ble to a ball and spring interpretation. [Pg.151]

The relative merits of various MO methods have been discussed in die literature. In general, the ab initio type of calculations will be more reliable, but the semiempirical calculations are faster in terms of computer time. The complexity of calculation also increases rapidly as the number of atoms in the molecule increases. The choice of a method is normally made on the basis of evidence that the method is adequate for the problem at hand and the availability of appropriate computer programs and equipment. Results should be subjected to critical evaluation by comparison widi experimental data or checked by representative calculations using higher-level mediods. Table 1.12 lists some reported deviations from experimental AHf for some small hydrocarbons. The extent of deviation gives an indication of the accuracy of the various types of MO calculations in this application. [Pg.28]

In the RISM-SCF theory, the statistical solvent distribution around the solute is determined by the electronic structure of the solute, whereas the electronic strucmre of the solute is influenced by the surrounding solvent distribution. Therefore, the ab initio MO calculation and the RISM equation must be solved in a self-consistent manner. It is noted that SCF (self-consistent field) applies not only to the electronic structure calculation but to the whole system, e.g., a self-consistent treatment of electronic structure and solvent distribution. The MO part of the method can be readily extended to the more sophisticated levels beyond Hartree-Fock (HF), such as configuration interaction (Cl) and coupled cluster (CC). [Pg.421]

Whereas it is generally sufficient (at least for the pubhshed methods) to specify the semi-empirical MO technique used in order to define the exact method used for the calculations, ab-initio theory offers far more variations, so that the exact level of the calculation must be specified. The starting point of most ab-initio jobs is an SCF calculation analogous to those discussed above for semi-empirical MO calculations. In ab-initio theory, however, all necessary integrals are calculated correctly, so that the calculations are very much (by a factor of about 1000) more time-consuming than their semi-empirical counterparts. [Pg.384]

A number of MO calculations has been carried out, and these have had mixed success in predicting chemical reactivity or spectroscopic parameters such as NMR chemical shifts and coupling constants. Most early calculations did not take into account the contribution of the sulfur 3d-orbitals to the ground state, and this accounts for some of the discrepancies between calculations and experimental observations. Of the MO methods used, CNDO/2 and CNDO/S have been most successful the INDO approximation cannot be used because of the presence of the sulfur atom. [Pg.132]

The molecular and liquid properties of water have been subjects of intensive research in the field of molecular science. Most theoretical approaches, including molecular simulation and integral equation methods, have relied on the effective potential, which was determined empirically or semiempirically with the aid of ab initio MO calculations for isolated molecules. The potential parameters so determined from the ab initio MO in vacuum should have been readjusted so as to reproduce experimental observables in solutions. An obvious problem in such a way of determining molecular parameters is that it requires the reevaluation of the parameters whenever the thermodynamic conditions such as temperature and pressure are changed, because the effective potentials are state properties. [Pg.422]

A thiepin is formally isoelectronic with the 8ic-electron 1,3,5,7-cyclooctatetraene and 1,3,5-cycloheptatrienide ion and, if planar, may actually be antiaromatic. Recently, the question of the antiaromaticity of thiepin has been the subject of interest for both synthetic and theoretical chemists. The apparent instability of the thiepin ring system is in good agreement with theoretical calculations. Dewar and Trinajstic 68) have reported that the thiepin is considered to be weakly antiaromatic (RE = — 1.45 kcal mol-1) based on PPP SCF MO calculations. On the other hand, Hess Jr. and Schaad 69) have found it to be substantially antiaromatic (RE = —0.232 J) by using the Huckel MO method. This result was also supported by a graph-theoretical treatment by Aihara 70). [Pg.65]

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