Orbitals overlap along a line connecting the two atoms... [Pg.60]

The structure of ethylene and the orbital hybridization model for its double bond were presented m Section 2 20 and are briefly reviewed m Figure 5 1 Ethylene is planar each carbon is sp hybridized and the double bond is considered to have a a component and a TT component The ct component arises from overlap of sp hybrid orbitals along a line connecting the two carbons the tt component via a side by side overlap of two p orbitals Regions of high electron density attributed to the tt electrons appear above and below the plane of the molecule and are clearly evident m the electrostatic potential map Most of the reactions of ethylene and other alkenes involve these electrons... [Pg.190]

Diagonal lines connecting the two axes show combinations of sample size and concentration of analyte containing the same absolute amount of analyte. As shown in Figure 3.6, for example, a 1-g sample containing 1% analyte has the same amount of analyte (0.010 g) as a 100-mg sample containing 10% analyte or a 10-mg sample containing 100% analyte. [Pg.43]

By following the lines connecting two sources of circled information, the boxed result in the perimeter of the triangle may be established. Thus kp is evaluated from r and n, . [Pg.373]

A representation of the various concentrations and driving forces in a.j—x diagram is shown in Eigure 4. The point representing the interfacial concentrations x ) must He on the equiHbrium curve since these concentrations are at equiHbrium. The point representing the bulk concentrations (y, Xj may be anywhere above the equiHbrium line for absorption or below it for desorption. The slope of the tie line connecting the two points is given by equations 4 and 5 ... [Pg.20]

process line connects two nozzles which are elevated higher than the piperack, then the upper level of the rack is used. Similarly, if the nozzles are both below the piperack, then the lower level rack is used. Other cases in which one nozzle is below and the other above use the least congested part of the piperack. Lines with valves are more easily accessed from the upper level, but require an access platform. [Pg.80]

Ternary-phase equilibrium data can be tabulated as in Table 15-1 and then worked into an electronic spreadsheet as in Table 15-2 to be presented as a right-triangular diagram as shown in Fig. 15-7. The weight-fraction solute is on the horizontal axis and the weight-fraciion extraciion-solvent is on the veriical axis. The tie-lines connect the points that are in equilibrium. For low-solute concentrations the horizontal scale can be expanded. The water-acetic acid-methylisobutylketone ternary is a Type I system where only one of the binary pairs, water-MIBK, is immiscible. In a Type II system two of the binary pairs are immiscible, i.e. the solute is not totally miscible in one of the liquids. [Pg.1450]

The mix point, = 0.0673, falls on a straight line connecting x and The extract composition is then determined hy drawing a straight line from x,-throiigh Zm until the line intersects the extract line at the final extract composition, i/e = 0.084. The delta point is then found at the intersection of two lines. One line connects the feed and extract compositions x and y. The other line connects the raffinate and solvent compositions x,- and y. ... [Pg.1461]

A slight positive pressure of argon was maintained in the vessel throughout the reaction by using an argon line connected to both a bubbler containing Nujol and the inlet on the dry ice condenser. [Pg.104]

Step 2. With a straight line, connect the point for carbon dioxide on the primary scale with the density-temperature intersection and extend the line to intersect the reference line 1. [Pg.366]

Construct a small rectangle around the point with fine pencil lines connecting the nearest 2 1/2 or 5 graticules. Graticules are intersections of latitude and longitude lines that are marked on the map edge, and appear as black crosses at four points in the interior of the map. [Pg.99]

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