Berg, A. and Gottschalg, O. (2004 2005) identified six general groups of value generation levers, which can be further divided into seventeen sublevers (Fig. 30.3). [Pg.407]

Variance is a measure of the scatter of a group of values about a mean value. It has a useful physical meaning for data in a set of case A. In case B sx may be used, e.g. as a measure of the spread of the calibration range. As above, the square roots of the variances are known as standard deviations. [Pg.48]

A very numerous group of values for magnetites from iron-... [Pg.248]

Table 1 emphasizes those protecting groups of value that have emerged as state-of-the-art within the context of their relative labilities the remainder of this section, however, is more comprehensive and organized according to structural classes, i.e. the chenoical functional group represented by the S-protected cysteine derivative. [Pg.388]

Variables may be independent or dependent. Usually, the variable under the control of the experimenter (e.g. time, reagent concentration, pH, etc.) is the independent variable, while the variable being measured is the dependent variable (p. 76). Sometimes, it is inappropriate to describe variables in this way, and they are often referred to as interdependent. Another group of values, often termed derived (or computed) data, are calculated from two or more individual measurements, and these include ratios, percentages and rates. [Pg.65]

The occurrence of these two groups of values (below and above 5% residual deformation) can be explained by the strain-induced a p polymorphic transition in PBT. As stressed above, it is well known (Yokouchi et ai, 1976) that up to 5% deformation the a polymorphic modification characterized by higher microhardness // , dominates in the samples. Furthermore, for 12-15% deformation (for homo-PBT), the a p transition is essentially completed (see Fig. 6.11(a)) and the samples show predominantly the polymorphic modification, which has a lower microhardness < // . However, after removal of the load (a = 0) the samples contract (e.g. after a deformation of e = 5-10%, the plastic deformation is around 1% and after s = 15-20% the plastic deformation is around 3%). In all these cases the plastic... [Pg.201]

This then is the full picture. Y on should not, of course, learn these numbers but you need an idea of roughly what each group of values means. Y on should see now why it is unimportant whether the Hammett correlation gives a good straight line or not. We just want to know whether p is + or - and whether it is, say, 3 or 6. It is meaningless to debate the significance of a r value of 3.4 as distinct from one of 3.8. [Pg.1097]

Two distinctly different model assumptions characterize the two groups of values. The first group was obtained with an assumption that the only reaction that occurred in the solution was the deprotonation reaction as in equation 4. [Pg.17]

The second group of values came from studies where it was assumed that polymerization reactions occurred, such as the formation of H5As206 (aq>, in addition to the deprotonation reaction. For chemical and mathematical reasons, the dissociation constant calculated from a set of measurements becomes smaller as one introduces polymeric anions into the model. The differences of the models chosen, at first appearance, could serve to explain the differences of the equilibrium constants given in the previous table. Unfortunately, the situation, from the perspective of data evaluation, is more complex. In principle, there should be a sufficient dilution of arsenious acid for which one would not expect the formation of a significant proportion of species like HsAsaOe caq) upon addition of base. For such a condition, the equilibrium constant determined assuming that only the monomer exists, should approach that determined for the multi-species model. Britton and Jackson (1934) performed potentiometric titration at two concentrations of arsenious acid (0.0170 and 0.0914 molar) and obtained essentially the same... [Pg.17]

Aggregate functions operate on a group of values rather than individual values as ordinary (or scalar) functions do. SQL has several standard aggregate functions, for example, sum, average, and max. The following SQL would likely return multiple rows. [Pg.27]

[Pg.481]

The first group of values (results not published) were obtained in an early study and show the concentrations of Pb in blood and urine, as well as the values of various biomarkers of... [Pg.13]

Three spatial photogrammetric coordinates X, Y, Z of model points are transformed and read out in PC (Personal Computer). These coordinates for i-th point diflfer from the geodetic coordinates, corresponding locality point because of the following main group of values influence ... [Pg.198]

Two groups of values are presented obtained from isothermal saturation and potentiometric results. The precision of results from isothermal saturation is worse. The potentiometric results should give lower values than isothermal saturation because it includes molecular oxide concentration. Figure 21.3.1 shows that results have opposite trend to [21.3.10]. [Pg.1490]

Due to expectance, at Step-by-step calculation has a smaller standard deviation for all nodes (the second and the fourth group of values on the Fig. 6), than a Standalone calculation without continuation (the first and the third group of values). The reason is beeause of more iteration are done at Step-by-step calculation and thereby also more accurate results. [Pg.1850]

There is misguided information follow on the Fig. 6, even if the network without standby area (the first and the second group of values) was simpler and after calculation on the number of component units there was more iteration and the result should be more accurately, it has worst standard deviation than the calculation... [Pg.1850]

On the Fig. 7 there is correct evaluation with relative values (standard deviation to average, by 100%) the biggest error (standard deviation in %) has the calculation without continuation with resource area (the third group of values), then the calculation with continuation with resource area (the fourth group of values). Results of grid with No backup have much lower standard deviation - all values of nodes are less one percent. [Pg.1850]

By taking H and T groups of values for a constant M and Eq. 30, the plot of H/T versus 1 /T is linear if A does not depend on T. The slope is then equal to Hg ch, for oach M value. Then, each isomagnetic line is shifted from the others, since its abscissa at H/T = 0 is simply the inverse temperature of the isotherm which has a the spontaneous magnetization equal to the M value (Fig. 3). [Pg.181]

If the value of the test statistic calculated from the sample falls in that group of values we have designated as the rejection region, we reject the hypothesis. [Pg.173]

Precision is the closeness of two sets of measured groups of values. [Pg.34]

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