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** Fundamental quantities of mass and volume **

It is customary to enclose the combination of fundamental dimensions in brackets when writing a dimensional equation. [Pg.44]

Dimensional units are the basic magnitudes used to specify the size of a fundamental quantity. In engineering problems, lengths are frequently measured in feet and times in seconds. In this system of dimensional units, acceleration would be expressed in units of ft/sec. [Pg.44]

A nondimensional quantity is one whose dimensional equation has unity or on the right side. The quantities (y/gF) and (vg/gO in Eq. [Pg.44]

The choice of fundamental quantities is somewhat arbitrary, as the following discussion will reveal. In Table 3.1, the fundamental quantities for the general dynamics problem were stated as F, L, and T. The quantities M (mass), L, and T could also have been used. Then F would be a secondary variable related to fundamental variables M, L, and T by a dimensional equation based on Newton s second law [Pg.45]

Variations in the Force Due to Gravity. The mass of an object is the quantity of matter ia the object. It is a fundamental quantity that is fixed, and does not change with time, temperature, location, etc. The standard for mass is a platinum—iridium cylinder, called the International Kilogram, maintained at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, ia Snvres, France. The mass of this cylinder is 1 kg by definition (9). AH national mass standards are traceable to this artifact standard. [Pg.330]

Chromatographic separations rely on fundamental differences in the affinity of the components of a mixture for the phases of a chromatographic system. Thus chromatographic parameters contain information on the fundamental quantities describing these interactions and these parameters may be used to deduce stabiUty constants, vapor pressures, and other thermodynamic data appropriate to the processes occurring in the chromatograph. [Pg.104]

The Separation Stage. A fundamental quantity, a, exists in all stochastic separation processes, and is an index of the steady-state separation that can be attained in an element of the process equipment. The numerical value of a is developed for each process under consideration in the subsequent sections. The separation stage, which in a continuous separation process is called the transfer unit or equivalent theoretical plate, may be considered as a device separating a feed stream, or streams, into two product streams, often called heads and tails, or product and waste, such that the concentrations of the components in the two effluent streams are related by the quantity, d. For the case of the separation of a binary mixture this relationship is... [Pg.76]

The time elapsed from the ereation of the initial supersaturation to the detee-tion of the first erystals formed in the system is known as the induetion period. The level of supersaturation attained is then akin to the metastable limit . Neither quantity (viz. the induetion time and metastable limit) is therefore a fundamental quantity. Both are useful measures, however, of the propensity of a solution to nueleate. Measurement of the induetion time as a funetion of supersaturation ean be used to help determine erystallization kineties and meehanism. Thus, the induetion time may be expressed by (Walton, 1967)... [Pg.131]

Two systems of units are in common usage in mechanics. The first, the SI system, is an absolute system based on the fundamental quantities of space, time, and mass. All other quantities, including force, are derived. In the SI system the basic unit of mass is the kilogram (kg), the basic unit of length (space) is the meter (m), and the basic unit of time is tbe second (s). The derived unit of force is the Newton (N), which is defined as the force required to accelerate a mass of 1 kg at a rate of 1 m/s-. [Pg.139]

Ohm s Law expresses the relation between the three fundamental quantities, current, electromotive force, and resistance ... [Pg.503]

The problem with triads, as well as the other important numerical hypothesis due to Prout, is easy to discern in retrospect. It is simply that atomic weight, which both concepts draw upon, is not the most fundamental quantity that can be used to systematize the elements. The atomic weight of any element depends on the particular geological origin of the sample examined. In addition, the atomic weight of any particular element is an average of several isotopes of the particular element. [Pg.119]

In Section II.B, we have used the density matrices to simplify the calculations, but the wave functions W are still the fundamental quantities. Relation II. 11 shows,however, that the expectation value of the energy p)Av depends only on the second-order density matrix, and we can rewrite it in the form22... [Pg.319]

In Figure 1-16, Moseley s data show that atomic number is clearly preferable, as a fundamental quantity, to atomic weight. The linear relationship between the frequency (reciprocal wavelength) v of the Ka line for element of atomic number Z is... [Pg.28]

Mutual Information.—In the preceding sections, self informa- tion was defined and interpreted as a fundamental quantity associated with a discrete memoryless communication source. In this section we define, and in the next section interpret, a measure of the information being transmitted over a communication system. One might at first be tempted to simply analyze the self information at each point in the system, but if the channel output is statistically independent of the input, the self information at the output of the channel bears no connection to the self information of the source. What is needed instead is a measure of the information in the channel output about the channel input. [Pg.205]

If, however, some other physical law were to be introduced so that, for instance, the attractive force between two bodies would be proportional to the product of their masses, then this relation between F and M would no longer hold. It should be noted that mass has essentially two connotations. First, it is a measure of the amount of material and appears in this role when the density of a fluid or solid is considered. Second, it is a measure of the inertia of the material when used, for example, in equations 1.1-1.3. Although mass is taken normally taken as the third fundamental quantity, as already mentioned, in some engineering systems force is used in place of mass which then becomes a derived unit. [Pg.2]

Equation 1.13 includes six variables, and three fundamental quantities (mass, length, and time) are involved. Thus ... [Pg.16]

The fundamental quantity for interferometry is the source s visibility function. The spatial coherence properties of the source is connected with the two-dimensional Fourier transform of the spatial intensity distribution on the ce-setial sphere by virtue of the van Cittert - Zemike theorem. The measured fringe contrast is given by the source s visibility at a spatial frequency B/X, measured in units line pairs per radian. The temporal coherence properties is determined by the spectral distribution of the detected radiation. The measured fringe contrast therefore also depends on the spectral properties of the source and the instrument. [Pg.282]

Later we shall see how fundamental quantities such as /i can be estimated from first principles (via a basic knowledge of the molecule such as its molecular weight, rotational constants etc.) and how the equilibrium constant is derived by requiring the chemical potentials of the interacting species to add up to zero as in Eq. (20). The above equations relate kinetics to thermodynamics and enable one to predict the rate constant for a reaction in the forward direction if the rate constant for the reverse reaction as well as thermodynamic data is known. [Pg.29]

Let us recall that the Hohenberg-Kohn theorems allow us to construct a rigorous many-body theory using the electron density as the fundamental quantity. We showed in the previous chapter that in this framework the ground state energy of an atomic or molecular system can be written as... [Pg.58]

It appears from formula (6) that the prior-prejudice distribution mix) is a fundamental quantity in the calculation of the MaxEnt distribution of electrons, in that the latter is obtained by modulation of m(x). In all those regions where the modulating factor required to fit the observations is unity, the final picture is therefore always going to coincide with the prior expectation itself. For this reason, it is of the greatest importance that some of the prior information available about the system under study be conveyed into the calculation by means of a sensible choice for the prior-prejudice distribution. [Pg.19]

Absolute measurements by fundamental quantities like Faraday constant and quotients of atomic and molar masses, respectively (coulom-etry, electrogravimetry, gravimetry, gas volumetry)... [Pg.62]

Definitive measurements by fundamental quantities complemented by an empirical factor, e.g. titre (titrimetry), as well as by well-known empirical (transferable) constants like molar absorption coefficient (spectrophotometry), Nernst factor (potentiometry, ISE), and conductivity at definite dilution (conductometry)... [Pg.62]

Depending on the type of relationships between the measured quantity and the measurand (analytical quantity) it can be distinguished (Danzer and Currie [1998]) between calibrations based on absolute measurements (one calibration is valid for all1 on the basis of the simple proportion y = b x, where the sensitivity factor b is a fundamental quantity see Sect. 2.4 Hula-nicki [1995] IUPAC Orange Book [1997, 2000]), definitive measurements (b is given either by a fundamental quantity complemented by an empirical factor or a well-known empirical (transferable) constant like molar absorption coefficient and Nernst factor), and experimental calibration. [Pg.150]

Line breadths are the fundamental quantities in this field of polymer analysis. As a consequence of the Fourier relation between structure and scattering these breadths are integral breadths, not full widths at half-maximum (FWHM). [Pg.121]

The fundamental quantity of interest, BE, is calculated from the KE (correcting for the work function 4>s). The sample is grounded to the spectrometer to pin the Fermi levels to a fixed value of the spectrometer (Fig. 1) so that the applicable work function is that of the spectrometer,

The dissociation energy relates to two fundamental quantities, the binding energy AEPH of H and P+ and the activation energy Q for diffusion... [Pg.138]

This effect induces a free induction decay (FID) signal in the detection circuit. The FID can be measured, and the normal absorption spectrum can be obtained by means of an inverse Fourier transform. A variety of experimental extensions have been developed for this approach. By means of particular pulse sequences it is possible to detect spin resonances selectively on the basis of a broad ensemble of properties such as spatial proximity and dipolar coupling strengths. The central fundamental quantity of interest is, however, still the energy spectrum of the nuclear spin,... [Pg.27]

The significance of the electrostatic potential is not limited to reactivity. It is indeed a fundamental quantity, in terms of which such intrinsic atomic and molecular properties as energies and electronegativities can be expressed rigorously. (For detailed discussions see Politzer et al. [18-23] and March [24].) In this chap-... [Pg.234]

Table 1.3 Selection of a few physicochemical parameters that comprise combinations of the seven SI fundamental quantities... |

The indices k in the Ihs above denote a pair of basis operators, coupled by the element Rk. - The indices n and /i denote individual interactions (dipole-dipole, anisotropic shielding etc) the double sum over /x and /x indicates the possible occurrence of interference terms between different interactions [9]. The spectral density functions are in turn related to the time-correlation functions (TCFs), the fundamental quantities in non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. The time-correlation functions depend on the strength of the interactions involved and on their modulation by stochastic processes. The TCFs provide the fundamental link between the spin relaxation and molecular dynamics in condensed matter. In many common cases, the TCFs and the spectral density functions can, to a good approximation, be... [Pg.328]

The fundamental quantity in DFT is the local electronic charge density of the solid p r). The total energy E of the full many-body problem of interacting quantum mechanical particles is expressed as a functional of this density ... [Pg.310]

International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU). Quantities and Units in Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ICRU Report 51 Bethesda, Maryland, 1993. International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU). Fundamental Quantities and Units for Ionizing Radiation, ICRU Report 60, Bethesda, Maryland, 1998. Wambersie A. Menzel H.G. Gahbauer R.A. Jones D.T.L. Michael B.D. Paretzke H. Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 2002, 99, 445. [Pg.782]

From the experimental viewpoint 1. the analysis of the variation of photoionization cross sections (affecting the intensities of photoelectron spectroscopy), gives an insight into the orbital composition of the bands of the solid 2. the combination of direct and inverse photoemission provides a powerful tool to assess the structure of occupied and of empty states, and, in the case of localized 5 f states, permits the determination of a fundamental quantity, the Coulomb correlation energy, governing the physical properties of narrow bands. [Pg.197]

Of course, the function G (s) does not contain any new information in addition to g(s). The reason that two physically equivalent quantities have been introduced, is that there are two approaches to the dynamics of charge transfer, as explained earlier either one starts from the OLE (when (t) is the observable and G(s) is the fundamental quantity) or one starts from the Hamiltonian Eq. (36), when the coupling g(s) is the fundamental quantity. The work of Voth and collaborators " gives a strong indication that these two approaches are equivalent, as in the case of the position-independent friction. [Pg.84]

The recrossing question is important because, if none occurs, the number of trajectories traversing the plane per unit time defines the rate of product formation, which is one of the fundamental quantities one wants to get from any kinetic theory. It also turns out that a famous approximation of TST—the supposed thermal equilibrium between reactant and transition state molecules—arises as a direct consequence of the nonrecrossing hypothesis. [Pg.939]

The analogy to which we refer is fundamentally quite simple. It states that the rate of flow per unit area, called a flux, of a fundamental quantity such as momentum, heat, or mass is proportional to a corresponding driving force which causes the flow to occur. [Pg.285]

** Fundamental quantities of mass and volume **

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