Centrifugal separators make use of the common principle that an object whirled about an axis at a constant radial distance from the point is acted on by a force. Use of centrifugal forces increases the force acting on the particles. Particles that do not settle readily in gravity settlers often can be separated from fluids by centrifugal force. [Pg.71]

This subject has a long history and important early papers include those by Deijaguin and Landau [29] (see Ref. 30) and Langmuir [31]. As noted by Langmuir in 1938, the total force acting on the planes can be regarded as the sum of a contribution from osmotic pressure, since the ion concentrations differ from those in the bulk, and a force due to the electric field. The total force must be constant across the gap and since the field, d /jdx is zero at the midpoint, the total force is given the net osmotic pressure at this point. If the solution is dilute, then... [Pg.180]

Generally speaking, intermolecular forces act over a short range. Were this not the case, the specific energy of a portion of matter would depend on its size quantities such as molar enthalpies of formation would be extensive variables On the other hand, the cumulative effects of these forces between macroscopic bodies extend over a rather long range and the discussion of such situations constitutes the chief subject of this chapter. [Pg.225]

Much of chemistry is concerned with the short-range wave-mechanical force responsible for the chemical bond. Our emphasis here is on the less chemically specific attractions, often called van der Waals forces, that cause condensation of a vapor to a liquid. An important component of such forces is the dispersion force, another wave-mechanical force acting between both polar and nonpolar materials. Recent developments in this area include the ability to measure... [Pg.225]

The second general cause of a variable heat of adsorption is that of adsorbate-adsorbate interaction. In physical adsorption, the effect usually appears as a lateral attraction, ascribable to van der Waals forces acting between adsorbate molecules. A simple treatment led to Eq. XVII-53. [Pg.700]

In classical mechanics, the state of the system may be completely specified by the set of Cartesian particle coordinates r. and velocities dr./dt at any given time. These evolve according to Newton s equations of motion. In principle, one can write down equations involving the state variables and forces acting on the particles which can be solved to give the location and velocity of each particle at any later (or earlier) time t, provided one knows the precise state of the classical system at time t. In quantum mechanics, the state of the system at time t is instead described by a well behaved mathematical fiinction of the particle coordinates q- rather than a simple list of positions and velocities. [Pg.5]

The time-dependent Sclirodinger equation allows the precise detemiination of the wavefimctioii at any time t from knowledge of the wavefimctioii at some initial time, provided that the forces acting witiiin the system are known (these are required to construct the Hamiltonian). While this suggests that quaiitum mechanics has a detemihiistic component, it must be emphasized that it is not the observable system properties that evolve in a precisely specified way, but rather the probabilities associated with values that might be found for them in a measurement. [Pg.12]

Shapes of the ground- and first tln-ee excited-state wavefiinctions are shown in figure AT 1.1 for a particle in one dimension subject to the potential V = which corresponds to the case where the force acting on the... [Pg.17]

There are several different fomis of work, all ultimately reducible to the basic definition of the infinitesimal work Dn =/d/ where /is the force acting to produce movement along the distance d/. Strictly speaking, both/ and d/ are vectors, so Dn is positive when the extension d/ of the system is in the same direction as the applied force if they are in opposite directions Dn is negative. Moreover, this definition assumes (as do all the equations that follow in this section) that there is a substantially equal and opposite force resisting the movement. Otiierwise the actual work done on the system or by the system on the surroundings will be less or even zero. As will be shown later, the maximum work is obtained when tlie process is essentially reversible . [Pg.325]

The leading order quantum correction to the classical free energy is always positive, is proportional to the sum of mean square forces acting on the particles and decreases with either increasing particle mass or mcreasing temperature. The next tenn in this expansion is of order This feature enables one to independently calculate the leading correction due to quanmm statistics, which is 0(h ). The result calculated in section A2.2.5.5 is... [Pg.402]

Thus, the requirement that the Brownian particle becomes equilibrated with the surrounding fluid fixes the unknown value of, and provides an expression for it in tenns of the friction coefficient, the thennodynamic temperature of the fluid, and the mass of the Brownian particle. Equation (A3.1.63) is the simplest and best known example of a fluctuation-dissipation theorem, obtained by using an equilibrium condition to relate the strengtii of the fluctuations to the frictional forces acting on the particle [22]. [Pg.689]

As the tip is brought towards the surface, there are several forces acting on it. Firstly, there is the spring force due to die cantilever, F, which is given by = -Icz. Secondly, there are the sample forces, which, in the case of AFM, may comprise any number of interactions including (generally attractive) van der Waals forces, chemical bonding interactions, meniscus forces or Bom ( hard-sphere ) repulsion forces. The total force... [Pg.1695]

Between any two atoms or molecules, van der Waals (or dispersion) forces act because of interactions between the fluctuating electromagnetic fields resulting from their polarizabilities (see section Al. 5, and, for instance. [Pg.2674]

If there are no reactions, the conservation of the total quantity of each species dictates that the time dependence of is given by minus the divergence of the flux ps vs), where (vs) is the drift velocity of the species s. The latter is proportional to the average force acting locally on species s, which is the thermodynamic force, equal to minus the gradient of the thermodynamic potential. In the local coupling approximation the mobility appears as a proportionality constant M. For spontaneous processes near equilibrium it is important that a noise term T] t) is retained [146]. Thus dynamic equations of the form... [Pg.26]

In order to solve the classical equations of motion numerically, and, thus, to t)btain the motion of all atoms the forces acting on every atom have to be computed at each integration step. The forces are derived from an energy function which defines the molecular model [1, 2, 3]. Besides other important contributions (which we shall not discuss here) this function contains the Coulomb sum... [Pg.79]

real life applications, the evaluation of the forces acting on the classical particles (i.e., the evaluation of the gradient of the interaction potential) is by far the most expensive operation due to the large number of classical degrees of freedom. Therefore we will concentrate on numerical techniques which try to minimize the number of force evaluations. [Pg.399]

Even at 0 K, molecules do not stand still. Quantum mechanically, this unexpected behavior can be explained by the existence of a so-called zero-point energy. Therefore, simplifying a molecule by thinking of it as a collection of balls and springs which mediate the forces acting between the atoms is not totally unrealistic, because one can easily imagine how such a mechanical model wobbles aroimd, once activated by an initial force. Consequently, the movement of each atom influences the motion of every other atom within the molecule, resulting in a com-... [Pg.359]

Yon can then determine the acceleration, a, of each atom hy dividing the force acting on it by the mass of the atom (cc natioii... [Pg.69]

Now the force per unit volume exerted on the porous medium by the pressure gradient in the gas is -grad p, where p, as distinct from is the physical pressure of the gaseous mixture. This is the force which must be balanced in our model by the external forces acting on the dust particles, so... [Pg.21]

The electrostatic potential at a point is the force acting on a unit positive charge placed at that point. The nuclei give rise to a positive (i.e. repulsive) force, whereas the electrons give rise to a negative potential. The electrostatic potential is an observable quantity that can be determined from a wavefunction using Equations (2.222) and (2.223) ... [Pg.207]

Here we have expressed the stress as the sum of the (external) applied pressure PappUed together with a static pressure Pstatic- which arises from the internal forces acting on the uiiit cell. [Pg.311]

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