Sheeran, D. Gopper Gontent in Synthetic Gopper Garbonate A Statistical Gomparison of Experimental and Expected Results, /. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 453-456. [Pg.97]

Vitreous sihca has many exceptional properties. Most are the expected result of vitreous sihca being an extremely pure and strongly bonded glass. Inert to most common chemical agents, it has a high softening point, low thermal expansion, exceUent thermal shock resistance, and an exceUent optical transmission over a wide spectmm. Compared to other technical glasses, vitreous sihca is one of the best thermal and electrical insulators and has one of the lowest indexes of refraction. [Pg.500]

With alarm management, the high pressure trip would alarm, but the other associated alarms would be suppressed, since they are the expected result of the high pressure trip. On the other hand, a low flow condition from a different cause would be alarmed. Plants with managed alarms are inherently safer than those without since it is easy to silence and overlook a critical alarm in the midst of an alarm shower. However, the benefits should be balanced with the increased complexity and maintenance requirements. [Pg.108]

Table 2.1 compares the expected results of data collection for the four cases for a 1-year period. [Pg.15]

That Dfractai givcs the expected result for simple sets in Euclidean space is easy to see. If A consists of a single point, for example, we have N A, e) = 1, Ve, and thus that / fractal = 0. Similarly, if A is a line segment of length L, then N A,e) L/e so that Dfraciai = 1. In fact, for the usual n dinien.sional Euclidean sets, the fractal dimension equals the topological dimension. There are nrore complicated sets, however, for wliic h the two measures differ. [Pg.26]

We can now take one of two approaches (1) construct a probabilistic CA along lines with the Metropolis Monte Carlo algorithm outlined above (see section 7.1.3.1), or (2) define a deterministic but reversible rule consistent with the microcanonical prescription. As we shall immediately see, however, neither approach yields the expected results. [Pg.359]

OXYTOCIN The patient receiving oxytocin to induce labor may have concern over the use of the drug to produce contractions. When given to induce or stimulate contractions, oxytocin may only be given intravenously (IV). The nurse explains the purpose of the IV infusion and the expected results to the patient. Because the patient receiving oxytocin must be closely supervised, the nurse spends time with the patient and offers encouragement and reassurance to help reduce anxiety. [Pg.562]

The differential distribution is the response to a unit impulse. Setting A = gives the expected result. Equation (15.19). [Pg.546]

Although this is an unusual solution to an ODE, it is the expected result since a stirred tank at maximum mixedness is a normal CSTR. [Pg.569]

In the context of this study, the extent of reaction refers to the conversion of sites from active to inactive, and is given by Equation 6 (i.e., x = 1 for no conversion, x = 0 for total conversion). For a single site mechanism it can be shown easily that F(x) reduces to 1.0. Solution of Equation 7 and substitution into Equation 3 yields the expected result ... [Pg.405]

Since spillover phenomena have been most directly sensed through the use of IR in OH-OD exchange [10] (in addition, in the case of reactions of solids, to phase modification), we used this technique to correlate with the catalytic results. One of the expected results of the action of Hjp is the enhancement of the number of Bronsted sites. FTIR analysis of adsorbed pyridine was then used to determine the relative amounts of the various kinds of acidic sites present. Isotopic exchange (OH-OD) experiments, followed by FTIR measurements, were used to obtain direct evidence of the spillover phenomena. This technique has already been successfully used for this purpose in other systems like Pt mixed or supported on silica, alumina or zeolites [10]. Conner et al. [11] and Roland et al. [12], employed FTIR to follow the deuterium spillover in systems where the source and the acceptor of Hjp were physically distinct phases, separated by a distance of several millimeters. In both cases, a gradient of deuterium concentration as a function of the distance to the source was observed and the zone where deuterium was detected extended with time. If spillover phenomena had not been involved, a gradientless exchange should have been observed. [Pg.98]

Steady state measurements of NO decomposition in the absence of CO under potentiostatic conditions gave the expected result, namely rapid self-poisoning of the system by chemisorbed oxygen addition of CO resulted immediately in a finite reaction rate which varied reversibly and reproducibly with changes in catalyst potential (Vwr) and reactant partial pressures. Figure 1 shows steady state (potentiostatic) rate data for CO2, N2 and N2O production as a function of Vwr at 621 K for a constant inlet pressures (P no, P co) of NO and CO of 0.75 k Pa. Also shown is the Vwr dependence of N2 selectivity where the latter quantity is defined as... [Pg.515]

In order to allow a better appreciation of this approach it wili be illustrated in the case of a saturated hydrocarbon whether it is linear, branched or cyclic. In order to get the best possible adjustment only the experimental values listed in Part Three, which were obviously in line with the expected result and rejected flashpoints oc , were used. [Pg.61]

One of the most important problems of planar chromatography is that of the optimization of solvent systems for the separation of mixtures of different samples. An analyst is interested in obtaining the expected result using a minimum number of experiments. Snyder has introduced a new system for solvent classification that permits a logical selection of solvents both in term of polarity indices (F ) and selectivity parameters (Xj), proving theoretically the validity of such universal solvent systems [18,38,41,42]. [Pg.79]

The sampling variance of the material determined at a certain mass and the number of repetitive analyses can be used for the calculation of a sampling constant, K, a homogeneity factor, Hg or a statistical tolerance interval (m A) which will cover at least a 95 % probability at a probability level of r - a = 0.95 to obtain the expected result in the certified range (Pauwels et al. 1994). The value of A is computed as A = k 2R-s, a multiple of Rj, where is the standard deviation of the homogeneity determination,. The value of fe 2 depends on the number of measurements, n, the proportion, P, of the total population to be covered (95 %) and the probability level i - a (0.95). These factors for two-sided tolerance limits for normal distribution fe 2 can be found in various statistical textbooks (Owen 1962). The overall standard deviation S = (s/s/n) as determined from a series of replicate samples of approximately equal masses is composed of the analytical error, R , and an error due to sample inhomogeneity, Rj. As the variances are additive, one can write (Equation 4.2) ... [Pg.132]

A form of this approach has long been followed by RT Corporation in the USA. In their certification of soils, sediments and waste materials they give a certified value, a normal confidence interval and a prediction interval . A rigorous statistical process is employed, based on that first described by Kadafar (1982,), to produce the two intervals the prediction interval (PI) and the confidence interval (Cl). The prediction interval is a wider range than the confidence interval. The analyst should expect results to fall 19 times out of 20 into the prediction interval. In real-world QC procedures, the PI value is of value where Shewhart (1931) charts are used and batch, daily, or weekly QC values are recorded see Section 4.1. Provided the recorded value falls inside the PI 95 % of the time, the method can be considered to be in control. So occasional abnormal results, where the accumulated uncertainty of the analytical procedure cause an outher value, need no longer cause concern. [Pg.246]

Perform periodic unannounced audits of operator performance by submitting blind samples of known composition. Comparison of observed vs. expected results may reveal bias due to differences in methodology or flaws in technique. The results of the tests should not be made the basis of punishment or reward. [Pg.43]

Comparison of these experimental results with the calculated charge densities (S0 and Si) at the 2 and 3 positions (Table 11.5) shows that this is the expected result. Except for those compounds discussed below, the failure to observe quenching with triplet quenchers and reaction in the presence of a photosensitizer indicated singlet reactions. Compound (89) was found to also undergo benzophenone-photosensitized substitution, indicating that the triplet state of this compound is also reactive. The reaction, however, was less clean than that observed in the direct photolysis. Similarly, 1,6-dinitro-naphthalene was found to undergo both direct and benzophenone-photosensitized substitution ... [Pg.575]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.28 , Pg.228 , Pg.230 , Pg.247 , Pg.254 , Pg.256 , Pg.277 , Pg.287 , Pg.299 , Pg.308 ]

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