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** Polyethylene stress relaxation curve **

** Polyisobutylene stress relaxation curve **

** Polypropylene stress relaxation curve **

** Stress relaxation master curve **

The mechanical and rheo-optical properties of Kraton 101 have been studied by Stein136) using films cast from methylethyl ketone and from toluene solutions. The stress-strain curves, birefringence-strain curve, stress relaxation, birefringence relaxation, and dynamic mechanical spectra are dependent upon the morphology of the copolymer which in turn is dependent upon the conditions of preparations of the samples. [Pg.125]

Medical devices, depending on the physiological environment surrounding them, can be subjected to either compressive or tensile stress. Typical characterizations of the mechanical properties of a polymer material involve the measurements of its stress-strain curves, stress relaxation curves, and creep curves. [Pg.293]

Mechanical Properties. The measurement of mechanical properties is concerned with load-deformation or stress-strain relationships. Forces may be applied as tension, shear, torsion, and compression and bending. Stress is the force divided by the cross-sectional area of the sample. Strain is the change in a physical dimension of the sample divided by the original dimension. The ratio of the stress to strain is referred to the modulus. Stress maybe applied continuously or periodically at varying rates for dilferent tests. The characteristic stress-strain curve, stress relaxation, or impact behavior is very important in determining the applications and limitations of a polsrmer. [Pg.1206]

The isothermal curves of mechanical properties in Chap. 3 are actually master curves constructed on the basis of the principles described here. Note that the manipulations are formally similar to the superpositioning of isotherms for crystallization in Fig. 4.8b, except that the objective here is to connect rather than superimpose the segments. Figure 4.17 shows a set of stress relaxation moduli measured on polystyrene of molecular weight 1.83 X 10 . These moduli were measured over a relatively narrow range of readily accessible times and over the range of temperatures shown in Fig. 4.17. We shall leave as an assignment the construction of a master curve from these data (Problem 10). [Pg.258]

Another aspect of plasticity is the time dependent progressive deformation under constant load, known as creep. This process occurs when a fiber is loaded above the yield value and continues over several logarithmic decades of time. The extension under fixed load, or creep, is analogous to the relaxation of stress under fixed extension. Stress relaxation is the process whereby the stress that is generated as a result of a deformation is dissipated as a function of time. Both of these time dependent processes are reflections of plastic flow resulting from various molecular motions in the fiber. As a direct consequence of creep and stress relaxation, the shape of a stress—strain curve is in many cases strongly dependent on the rate of deformation, as is illustrated in Figure 6. [Pg.271]

Fig. 38. Stress—relaxation curve for a lightly vulcanized rubber (242). To convert Pa to dyn/cm, multiply by 10. |

This is a stress relaxation problem and strictly speaking stress relaxation data should be used. However, for most purposes isometric curves obtained from the creep curves are sufficiently accurate. By considering the 1.5% isometric curve shown in Fig. 2.8 it may be seen that the initial stress is 16 MN/m2 and the stress after 1 week is 7 MN/m2. [Pg.60]

This is a stress relaxation problem but the isometric curves may be used. [Pg.440]

From such curves, however, it would not be possible to determine whether the viscoelasticity is in fact linear. An experiment is needed where the time effect can be isolated. Typical of such experiments is stress relaxation. In this test, the specimen is strained to a specified magnitude at the beginning of the test and held unchanged throughout the experiment, while the monotonically decay-... [Pg.42]

Viscoelastic stress-relaxation data are usually presented in one of two ways. In the first, the stress manifested as a function of time. Families of such curves may be presented at each temperature of interest. Each curve representing the stress-relaxation behavior of the material at a different level of... [Pg.64]

The resulting data can then be presented as a series of curves much like the isometric stress curves in Fig. 2-27. A relaxation modulus similar to the creep modulus can also be derived from the relaxation data. It has been shown that using the creep modulus calculated from creep curves can approximate the decrease in load from stress relaxation. [Pg.73]

Example of isochronous stress-strain curves for PCs resulting from stress relaxation. [Pg.75]

As a melt is subjected to a fixed stress or strain, the deformation versus time curve will show an initial rapid deformation followed by a continuous flow. Elasticity and strain are compared in Fig. 8-9 that provides (a) basic deformation vs. time curve, (b) stress-strain deformation vs. time with the creep effect, (c) stress-strain deformation vs. time with the stress-relaxation effect, (d) material exhibiting elasticity, and (e) material exhibiting... [Pg.450]

Figure 7.10 Stress relaxation master curve at a given temprature... |

Figure 7.11 Stress relaxation curve for vulcanized natural rubber showing characteristic upswing at higher stresses... |

It has often been pointed out for a long time that the hysteresis energy given from the hysteresis loop under large extension is too big compared with the viscoelastic dissipation energy. For example, the hysteresis loop given from the stress relaxation is only 20%-30% of that from the stress-strain curve, when both measurements are performed at the same relaxation time and the... [Pg.537]

Figure 2. Stress—relaxation as a function of time of UV exposure (numbers on each curve represent days of exposure at 37°C)... |

The distribution of relaxation times H(r) can be estimated from a stress relaxation or Er(() curve plotted on a log t scale by... [Pg.71]

To get accurate distributions of relaxation or retardation times, the expetimcntal data should cover about 10 or 15 decades of time. It is impossible to get experimental data covering such a great range of times at one temperature from a single type of experiment, such as creep or stress relaxation-t Therefore, master curves (discussed later) have been developed that cover the required time scales by combining data at different temperatures through the use of time-temperature superposition principles. [Pg.72]

The longest relaxation time. t,. corresponds to p = 1. The important characteristics of the polymer are its steady-state viscosity > at zero rate of shear, molecular weight A/, and its density p at temperature 7" R is the gas constant, and N is the number of statistical segments in the polymer chain. For vinyl polymers N contains about 10 to 20 monomer units. This equation holds only for the longer relaxation times (i.e., in the terminal zone). In this region the stress-relaxation curve is now given by a sum of exponential terms just as in equation (10), but the number of terms in the sum and the relationship between the T S of each term is specified completely. Thus... [Pg.73]

Thus (he time scale / at /, divided by an is equivalent to the scale at On a log scale, log a, is thus the horizontal shift factor required for superposition. An important consequence of equation (22) is that a, or log (ii is the same for a given polymer (or solution) no matter what experiment is being employed. Thai is. creep and stress-relaxation curves are shifted by the same amount. [Pg.76]

The temperature-time superposition principle is illustrated in Figure 8 by a hypothetical polymer with a TK value of 0°C for the case of stress relaxation. First, experimental stress relaxation curves are obtained at a series of temperatures over as great a time period as is convenient, say from 1 min to 10 min (1 week) in (he example in Figure 8. In making the master curve from the experimental data, the stress relaxation modulus ,(0 must first be multiplied by a small temperature correction factor/(r). Above Tg this correction factor is where Ttrt is the chosen reference... [Pg.77]

Master curves are important since they give directly the response to be expected at other times at that temperature. In addition, such curves are required to calculate the distribution of relaxation times as discussed earlier. Master curves can be made from stress relaxation data, dynamic mechanical data, or creep data (and, though less straightforwardly, from constant-strain-rate data and from dielectric response data). Figure 9 shows master curves for the compliance of poly(n. v-isoprene) of different molecular weights. The master curves were constructed from creep curves such as those shown in Figure 10 (32). The reference temperature 7, for the... [Pg.79]

Here m is the usual small-strain tensile stress-relaxation modulus as described and observed in linear viscoelastic response [i.e., the same E(l) as that discussed up to this point in the chapter). The nonlinearity function describes the shape of the isochronal stress-strain curve. It is a simple function of A, which, however, depends on the type of deformation. Thus for uniaxial extension,... [Pg.83]

Beyond Tfl, whole molecules are moving and contributing to viscous flow [i.e., equation (44) describes the long-time tail of the stress relaxation curve or the onset of the flow regime]. [Pg.94]

** Polyethylene stress relaxation curve **

** Polyisobutylene stress relaxation curve **

** Polypropylene stress relaxation curve **

** Stress relaxation master curve **

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