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** Actual Values of Performance Parameters Obtained through Laboratory Testing **

** Actual versus theoretical values **

** Material properties, theoretical actual values **

The differences between the measured cetane numbers and the cetane indices calculated by the above formula are relatively small for cetane indices between 40 and 55. Nevertheless, for diesel fuels containing a pro-cetane additive, the CCl will be much less than the actual value (refer to paragraph d). [Pg.220]

The previous equation is only valid as long as there is no compositional change of the gas between the subsurface and the surface. The value of E is typically in the order of 200, in other words the gas expands by a factor of around 200 from subsurface to surface conditions. The actual value of course depends upon both the gas composition and the reservoir temperature and pressure. Standard conditions of temperature and pressure are commonly defined as 60°F (298K) and one atmosphere (14.7 psia or 101.3 kPa), but may vary from location to location, and between gas sales contracts. [Pg.107]

In abnormally pressured reservoirs, the continuous pressure-depth relationship is interrupted by a sealing layer, below which the pressure changes. If the pressure below the seal is higher than the normal (or hydrostatic) pressure the reservoir is termed overpressured. Extrapolation of the fluid gradient in the overpressured reservoir back to the surface datum would show a pressure greater than one atmosphere. The actual value by which the extrapolated pressure exceeds one atmosphere defines the level of overpressure in the reservoir. Similarly, an underpressured reservoir shows an pressure less than one atmosphere when extrapolated back to the surface datum. [Pg.118]

This means that the potential some distance away appears to follow Eq. V-13, but with an apparent value of AkTjze, which is independent of the actual value. For monovalent ions at room temperature this apparent would be 100 mV. [Pg.173]

In the absence of skidding, the coefficient of static friction applies at each instant, the portion of the tire that is in contact with the pavement has zero velocity. Rolling tire friction is more of the type discussed in Section XII-2E. If, however, skidding occurs, then since rubber is the softer material, the coefficient of friction as given by Eq. XII-5 is determined mainly by the properties of the rubber used and will be nearly the same for various types of pavement. Actual values of p, turn out to be about unity. [Pg.437]

One consequence of perfonning the stabilization procedure is that the initial conditions that correspond to the current g (R) are changed each time stabilization is perfomied. However this does not matter as long the mitial g (R) value corresponds to the limit 0 as then all one needs is for g (R) to be small (i.e., die actual value is not important). [Pg.986]

In the second part of hla memoir Reynolds gave a theoretical account of thermal transpiration, based on the kinetic theory of gases, and was able CO account for Che above "laws", Chough he was not able to calculate Che actual value of the pressure difference required Co prevent flow over Che whole range of densities. ... [Pg.178]

The excess chemical potential, that is the difference between the actual value and that of equivalent ideal gas system, is given by ... [Pg.459]

The approximation to the closed integral improves as the number of iterations increases up to a point. The actual values in Table 1-1 may be system specific, that is, different hardware and software combinations may give slightly different results because of different ways of storing numbers. One is tempted to think of approximations as getting better without limit, the sum approaching the integral... [Pg.13]

The actual value of the enthalpy of hydrogenation of 1,3-butadiene is —243 k,l rnol Both are hydrogenated to the same product, u-biitaiie hence the enthalpy diagram (Fig. 7-4) shows that bnta-1,3-diene is 11 kJ rnol. lower in enthalpy than it ought" to be on the basis of the reference standard, bnt-l-ene. [Pg.218]

It is hardest to obtain precise values for the enthalpic values A, S, and G because they depend more heavily on high-energy states, which the system achieves infrequently. These functions depend on the actual value of Q, not just its derivatives. [Pg.15]

Vibrational frequencies from semiempirical calculations tend to be qualitative in that they reproduce the general trend mentioned in the introduction here. However, the actual values are erratic. Some values will be close, whereas others are often too high. SAMI is generally the most accurate semiempirical... [Pg.93]

The situation has been examined more recently and an f-factor of about 4 has been observed, consistent with the formation of the nitro-nium ion. The actual value was 3-82, slightly lower than expected because the water formed is not fully protonated. [Pg.14]

Now, in principle, the angle of contact between a liquid and a solid surface can have a value anywhere between 0° and 180°, the actual value depending on the particular system. In practice 6 is very difficult to determine with accuracy even for a macroscopic system such as a liquid droplet resting on a plate, and for a liquid present in a pore having dimensions in the mesopore range is virtually impossible of direct measurement. In applications of the Kelvin equation, therefore, it is almost invariably assumed, mainly on grounds of simplicity, that 0 = 0 (cos 6 = 1). In view of the arbitrary nature of this assumption it is not surprising that the subject has attracted attention from theoreticians. [Pg.123]

These various calculations indicate that, for most of the range covered in pore size calculations, the actual value of y will differ appreciably from the normal value. The effect of using the corrected values would be to raise the calculated value of in the proportion y y. ... [Pg.154]

The linear regression calculations for a 2 factorial design are straightforward and can be done without the aid of a sophisticated statistical software package. To simplify the computations, factor levels are coded as +1 for the high level, and -1 for the low level. The relationship between a factor s coded level, Xf, and its actual value, Xf, is given as... [Pg.677]

The main advantage of wholesale climate control Hes in easy access to the objects, and the absence of differences in conditions between various spaces within the institution, eg, storage areas, conservation laboratories, and exhibition galleries. The actual values set for the rh are a matter of compromise metals, stone, and ceramics are best served by humidities as low as possible, but organic materials generally require higher values. An accepted... [Pg.428]

studies early in the twentieth century (51), illustrates the relationship of vapor pressure to temperature. It is assumed that vapor pressure increases with temperature and that the form having the lowest vapor pressure is the most stable. The actual values of the vapor pressures are largely unknown. Therefore, the ordinate must be considered only as an indication of relative stabiUties. This diagram does not show all the various forms of tridymite that have been identified. [Pg.473]

The results given for HCO are actually values of the carbonate alkalinity expressed as though it were all HCO . ... [Pg.217]

This is pressure drop (including friction loss) between run and branch, based on velocity in the mainstream before branching. Actual value depends on the flow split, ranging from 0.5 to 1.3 if mainstream enters run and from 0.7 to 1.5 if mainstream enters branch. [Pg.644]

Clearly, the value of Cinv affects both the annual cash income and the net annual profit. Since annual cash incomes are the basic data for (NPV) and (DCFRR) methods of estimating profitability, the actual value per unit of inventory is of direcl importance for chemical engineers engaged in economic assessments. [Pg.847]

However, the total number of equilibrium stages N, N/N,n, or the external-reflux ratio can be substituted for one of these three specifications. It should be noted that the feed location is automatically specified as the optimum one this is assumed in the Underwood equations. The assumption of saturated reflux is also inherent in the Fenske and Underwood equations. An important limitation on the Underwood equations is the assumption of constant molar overflow. As discussed by Henley and Seader (op. cit.), this assumption can lead to a prediction of the minimum reflux that is considerably lower than the actual value. No such assumption is inherent in the Fenske equation. An exact calculational technique for minimum reflux is given by Tavana and Hansen [Jnd. E/ig. Chem. Process Des. Dev., 18, 154 (1979)]. A computer program for the FUG method is given by Chang [Hydrocarbon Process., 60(8), 79 (1980)]. The method is best applied to mixtures that form ideal or nearly ideal solutions. [Pg.1274]

For stripping one begins by using the design specification to locate the point Xi, y. Then the iutersecfiou of the vertical huex = X9 with the equilibrium curve y° = F x) defines the theoretical minimum gas-to-liquid ratio. The actual value of is chosen to be about 20 to 50... [Pg.1353]

The problem with plant data becomes more significant when sampling, instrument, and cahbration errors are accounted for. These errors result in a systematic deviation in the measurements from the actual values. Descriptively, the total error (mean square error) in the measurements is... [Pg.2560]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.128 ]

** Actual Values of Performance Parameters Obtained through Laboratory Testing **

** Actual versus theoretical values **

** Material properties, theoretical actual values **

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