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** Accurate Solutions for Two-Cascaded Sections **

** Highly-accurate solutions of the Schrodinger equation **

** Preparing Accurate Activity Calibration Solutions **

Finite elements that maintain inter-element compatibility of functions are called conforming elements . Finite elements that do not have this property are referred to as the non-conforming elements . Under certain conditions non-conforming elements can lead to accurate solutions and are more advantageous to use. [Pg.32]

All numerical computations inevitably involve round-off errors. This error increases as the number of calculations in the solution procedure is increased. Therefore, in practice, successive mesh refinements that increase the number of finite element calculations do not necessarily lead to more accurate solutions. However, one may assume a theoretical situation where the rounding error is eliminated. In this case successive reduction in size of elements in the mesh should improve the accuracy of the finite element solution. Therefore, using a P C" element with sufficient orders of interpolation and continuity, at the limit (i.e. when element dimensions tend to zero), an exact solution should be obtaiiied. This has been shown to be true for linear elliptic problems (Strang and Fix, 1973) where an optimal convergence is achieved if the following conditions are satisfied ... [Pg.33]

The disadvantage of ah initio methods is that they are expensive. These methods often take enormous amounts of computer CPU time, memory, and disk space. The HF method scales as N, where N is the number of basis functions. This means that a calculation twice as big takes 16 times as long (2" ) to complete. Correlated calculations often scale much worse than this. In practice, extremely accurate solutions are only obtainable when the molecule contains a dozen electrons or less. However, results with an accuracy rivaling that of many experimental techniques can be obtained for moderate-size organic molecules. The minimally correlated methods, such as MP2 and GVB, are often used when correlation is important to the description of large molecules. [Pg.28]

Starting with an initial value of and knowing c t), Eq. (8-4) can be solved for c t + At). Once c t + At) is known, the solution process can be repeated to calciilate c t + 2At), and so on. This approach is called the Euler integration method while it is simple, it is not necessarily the best approach to numerically integrating nonlinear differential equations. To achieve accurate solutions with an Eiiler approach, one often needs to take small steps in time. At. A number of more sophisticated approaches are available that allow much larger step sizes to be taken but require additional calculations. One widely used approach is the fourth-order Bunge Kutta method, which involves the following calculations ... [Pg.720]

The only problem with the foregoing approach to molecular interactions is that the accurate solution of Schrddinger s equation is possible only for very small systems, due to the limitations in current algorithms and computer power. Eor systems of biological interest, molecular interactions must be approximated by the use of empirical force fields made up of parametrized tenns, most of which bear no recognizable relation to Coulomb s law. Nonetheless the force fields in use today all include tenns describing electrostatic interactions. This is due at least in part to the following facts. [Pg.95]

Rules of thumb for ehemical engineers a manual of quick, accurate solutions to everyday process engineering problems/Carl R. Branan, editor.-3 ed. p. cm. [Pg.438]

The above shows how the dimensionless numbers are used to provide the most accurate solution. Collecting these definitions together,... [Pg.137]

The Gear Algorithm [15], based on the Adams formulas, adjusts both the order and mesh size to produce the desired local truncation error. BuUrsch and Sloer method [16, 22] is capable of producing accurate solutions using step sizes that arc much smaller than conventional methods. Packaged Fortran subroutines for both methods are available. [Pg.88]

Equation 5 can be used as is, but a more accurate solution is given by ... [Pg.72]

In this chapter we described Euler s method for solving sets of ordinary differential equations. The method is extremely simple from a conceptual and programming viewpoint. It is computationally inefficient in the sense that a great many arithmetic operations are necessary to produce accurate solutions. More efficient techniques should be used when the same set of equations is to be solved many times, as in optimization studies. One such technique, fourth-order Runge-Kutta, has proved very popular and can be generally recommended for all but very stiff sets of first-order ordinary differential equations. The set of equations to be solved is... [Pg.77]

Quantum mechanical effects—tunneling and interference, resonances, and electronic nonadiabaticity— play important roles in many chemical reactions. Rigorous quantum dynamics studies, that is, numerically accurate solutions of either the time-independent or time-dependent Schrodinger equations, provide the most correct and detailed description of a chemical reaction. While hmited to relatively small numbers of atoms by the standards of ordinary chemistry, numerically accurate quantum dynamics provides not only detailed insight into the nature of specific reactions, but benchmark results on which to base more approximate approaches, such as transition state theory and quasiclassical trajectories, which can be applied to larger systems. [Pg.2]

The most accurate solution actinometer currently available is the potassium ferrioxalate actinometer. Potassium ferrioxalate solutions absorb light in the range 250-509 nm. This broad range is both an advantage and a disadvantage since the solutions are sensitive to room light and must be carefully shielded from light until the intensity determination is made ... [Pg.34]

Probably the least flexible of all methods with respect to the time-step and distance relationship is the method of characteristics (MOC). It requires the pipe lengths in a network to be adjusted to satisfy the condition of a common time interval, but provides an accurate solution of the differential equations. MOC has been successfully implemented by Goacher (G4), Streeter and associates (S6), and Masliyah and Shook (M5). More recently,... [Pg.192]

As discussed in previous sections, measurements in the laboratory suppose the most accurate solution for determining environmental concentrations. In this section the main advantages of analytical measurements as well as the new trends in analytical instrumentation and experimental methodologies are discussed. [Pg.31]

More complicated numerical methods, such as the Runge-Kutta method, yield more accurate solutions, and for precisely formulated problems requiring accurate solutions these methods are helpful. Examples of such problems are the evolution of planetary orbits or the propagation of seismic waves. But the more accurate numerical methods are much harder to understand and to implement than is the reverse Euler method. In the following chapters, therefore, I shall show the wide range of interesting environmental simulations that are possible with simple numerical methods. [Pg.15]

In his first communication23 on the new wave mechanics, Schrodinger presented and solved his famous Eq. (1.1) for the one-electron hydrogen atom. To this day the H atom is the only atomic or molecular species for which exact solutions of Schrodinger s equation are known. Hence, these hydrogenic solutions strongly guide the search for accurate solutions of many-electron systems. [Pg.8]

This calls for a more accurate solution. We do this as follows equate Equations (6.28) and (6.34) as q /h and substitute Equation (6.35) ... [Pg.151]

Hence this accurate solution gives a big change in the surface temperature of the methanol, but the order of magnitude of the mass flux at ignition is about the same, 0(1 g/m2 s). [Pg.151]

The classic methods use an ODE solver in combination with an optimization algorithm and solve the problem sequentially. This solution strategy is referred to as a sequential solution and optimization approach, since for each iteration the optimization variables are set and then the differential equation constraints are integrated. Though straightforward, this approach is generally inefficient because it requires the accurate solution of the model equations at each iteration within the optimization, even when iterates are far from the final optimal solution. [Pg.169]

The study of behavior of many-electron systems such as atoms, molecules, and solids under the action of time-dependent (TD) external fields, which includes interaction with radiation, has been an important area of research. In the linear response regime, where one considers the external held to cause a small perturbation to the initial ground state of the system, one can obtain many important physical quantities such as polarizabilities, dielectric functions, excitation energies, photoabsorption spectra, van der Waals coefficients, etc. In many situations, for example, in the case of interaction of many-electron systems with strong laser held, however, it is necessary to go beyond linear response for investigation of the properties. Since a full theoretical description based on accurate solution of TD Schrodinger equation is not yet within the reach of computational capabilities, new methods which can efficiently handle the TD many-electron correlations need to be explored, and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is one such valuable approach. [Pg.71]

** Accurate Solutions for Two-Cascaded Sections **

** Highly-accurate solutions of the Schrodinger equation **

** Preparing Accurate Activity Calibration Solutions **

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