The integral of the Gaussian distribution function does not exist in closed form over an arbitrary interval, but it is a simple matter to calculate the value of p(z) for any value of z, hence numerical integration is appropriate. Like the test function, f x) = 100 — x, the accepted value (Young, 1962) of the definite integral (1-23) is approached rapidly by Simpson s rule. We have obtained four-place accuracy or better at millisecond run time. For many applications in applied probability and statistics, four significant figures are more than can be supported by the data. [Pg.16]

Note that we are interested in nj, the atomic quantum number of the level to which the electron jumps in a spectroscopic excitation. Use the results of this data treatment to obtain a value of the Rydberg constant R. Compare the value you obtain with an accepted value. Quote the source of the accepted value you use for comparison in your report. What are the units of R A conversion factor may be necessary to obtain unit consistency. Express your value for the ionization energy of H in units of hartrees (h), electron volts (eV), and kJ mol . We will need it later. [Pg.76]

What is the average enthalpy of atomization of the four C—H bonds in methane Compare this value with the accepted value of the C—H bond enthalpy. [Pg.91]

In addition to the orthodox method, just described, for the determination of the boiling points of liquids, the student should determine the boiling points of small volumes (ca. 0 5 ml.) by Siwolobofifs method. Full details are given iri Section 11,12. Determine the boiling points of the pure liquids listed in the previous paragraph. Observe the atmospheric pressure and if this differs by more than 5 mm. from 760 mm., correct the boiling point with the aid of Table II,9,B. Compare the observed boiling points with the accepted values, and draw a calibration curve for the thermometer. [Pg.231]

The normal distribution of measurements (or the normal law of error) is the fundamental starting point for analysis of data. When a large number of measurements are made, the individual measurements are not all identical and equal to the accepted value /x, which is the mean of an infinite population or universe of data, but are scattered about /x, owing to random error. If the magnitude of any single measurement is the abscissa and the relative frequencies (i.e., the probability) of occurrence of different-sized measurements are the ordinate, the smooth curve drawn through the points (Fig. 2.10) is the normal or Gaussian distribution curve (also the error curve or probability curve). The term error curve arises when one considers the distribution of errors (x — /x) about the true value. [Pg.193]

Identifying Determinate Errors Determinate errors can be difficult to detect. Without knowing the true value for an analysis, the usual situation in any analysis with meaning, there is no accepted value with which the experimental result can be compared. Nevertheless, a few strategies can be used to discover the presence of a determinate error. [Pg.60]

The probabilistic nature of a confidence interval provides an opportunity to ask and answer questions comparing a sample s mean or variance to either the accepted values for its population or similar values obtained for other samples. For example, confidence intervals can be used to answer questions such as Does a newly developed method for the analysis of cholesterol in blood give results that are significantly different from those obtained when using a standard method or Is there a significant variation in the chemical composition of rainwater collected at different sites downwind from a coalburning utility plant In this section we introduce a general approach to the statistical analysis of data. Specific statistical methods of analysis are covered in Section 4F. [Pg.82]

Is the mean for these five trials significantly different from the accepted value at the 95% confidence level (a = 0.05) ... [Pg.86]

Determine the density at least five times, (a) Report the mean, the standard deviation, and the 95% confidence interval for your results, (b) Eind the accepted value for the density of your metal, and determine the absolute and relative error for your experimentally determined density, (c) Use the propagation of uncertainty to determine the uncertainty for your chosen method. Are the results of this calculation consistent with your experimental results ff not, suggest some possible reasons for this disagreement. [Pg.99]

The accuracy of a spectrophotometer can be checked by measuring absorbances for a series of standard dichromate solutions that can be obtained in sealed cuvettes from the National institute of Standards and Technology. Absorbances are measured at 257 nm and compared with the accepted values. The results obtained when testing a newly purchased spectrophotometer are shown here. Determine if the tested spectrophotometer is accurate at a = 0.05. [Pg.100]

The commercially accepted value has been given. Measured values and density calculations from x-ray data show some variations. To convert MPa to psi, multiply by 145. [Pg.378]

Purified hGH is a white amorphous powder in its lyophilized form. It is readily soluble (concentrations >10 mg/mL) in dilute aqueous buffers at pH values above 7.2. The isoelectric point is 5.2 (3) and the generally accepted value for the extinction coefficient at 280 nm is 17,700 (Af-cm) (4),... [Pg.195]

In the past, commodity chemicals were generally priced on the basis of ROl. Capital cost was the most critical item, and those elements that ate related to capital cost were the principal factors in the selling price (excluding taw material cost in some cases). On this basis, a satisfactory ROl resulted in acceptable values for other criteria such as ROS or sales margin. Many analysts favor ROS as a benchmark for comparison because it is up to date and simple and because it is increasingly difficult to determine a tme ROl based on what profits might be on plants built under indation and expensive capital and constmction costs. [Pg.537]

The relationship between (MSF), p, and 17 in Eq. (9-106) is shown graphically in Fig. 9-27. It is the responsibility of management to decide on an acceptable value of the (MSF) for its company. The value chosen will depend on the company s attitude to risk that can be quantified in the form of a utihty curve such as the one shown in Fig. 9-25, from which a value of equivalent (MSF) can be obtained. [Pg.830]

Figure 2.13 shows a summary of transformation pressures in iron alloys. The present accepted value for the iron shock transition is 12.5 GPa, whereas under static pressure the accepted value is 12 GPa. [Pg.38]

The experimental results are well-accepted values with small errors. [Pg.144]

By contrast with the water-soluble sulfides of Groups 1 and 2, the corresponding heavy metal sulfides of Groups 11 and 12 are amongst the least-soluble compounds known. Literature values are often wildly discordant, and care should be taken in interpreting the data. Thus, for black HgS the most acceptable value of the solubility product [Hg +][S ] is 10- mol2l-2, i.e. [Pg.679]

Table 0.1 shows such atomic units . The accepted values of the SI constants are themselves subject to minor experimental improvements, so authors generally report (he results of molecular modelling calculations as (e.g.) R = 50aa and give the conversion factor to SI somewhere in their paper, usually as a footnote. [Pg.22]

Table 3 also lists the density p of these alloys, which was measured by the Achemedes principle using pure ethanol as immersion fluid. To monitor the accuracy of the measurements, the density of 99.999% pure Al shots was also measured and it was found to be within 0.4% from its accepted value. [Pg.295]

K = allowable radiation, BTU/hr/sq ft (See Table 7-32) Select acceptable value for conditions assumed ... [Pg.531]

This is an acceptable value and should not be exceeded except in known systems. It is preferable to operate reasonably close to the loading condition for best efficiency of contact. [Pg.314]

RESET Initializes an input file to accept values... [Pg.131]

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