It is accurate for simple low valence electrolytes in aqueous solution at 25 °C and for molten salts away from the critical point. The solutions are obtained numerically. A related approximation is the following. [Pg.479]

J. C. Rasaiah, Computations for higher valence electrolytes in the restricted primitive model, /. Chem. Phys. 56, 3071 (1972). [Pg.135]

Rasaiah J C 1972 Computations for higher valence electrolytes in the restricted primitive model J, [Pg.554]

In general, for mixed valency electrolytes, we can express the individual transference numbers in terms of the experimentally accessible equivalent ionic conductivities from (6.17) and (6.19) as [Pg.126]

It is necessary to call attention to the fact that equation (69) was deduced for symmetrical valence electrolytes for unsymmetrical types the corresponding equation is of a still more complicated nature. [Pg.155]

The Debye thickness decreases with increasing electrolyte concentration and it decreases more for the high-valency electrolytes. The surface potential is estimated, sometimes indirectly, via electrokinetic experiments (see Section 10.6). Through these experiments we can measure the electrophoretic mobility, which for very small or very large particles can be related by theory to the so-called zeta potential (Hiickel and Smoluchowski equations. Equation 10.10). The zeta potential is approximately equal to the surface potential. [Pg.214]

It is well-known that the traditional double layer theory is valid in a limited range of concentrations for monovalent electrolytes, but is much less valid for higher valency electrolytes.15 The traditional theory starts from the Poisson equation [Pg.563]

The osmotic coefficients from the HNC approximation were calculated from the virial and compressibility equations the discrepancy between ([ly and ((ij is a measure of the accuracy of the approximation. The osmotic coefficients calculated via the energy equation in the MS approximation are comparable in accuracy to the HNC approximation for low valence electrolytes. Figure A2.3.15 shows deviations from the Debye-Htickel limiting law for the energy and osmotic coefficient of a 2-2 RPM electrolyte according to several theories. [Pg.497]

The second of these relations is exact the first is an approximation which assumes the asymptotic form of the direct correlation function for all separations beyond the hard core diameter. By implication the solutes molecules are assumed to have hard cores, e.g., charged hard spheres (RPM) or sticky charged hard spheres (SEM). An advantage to the MSA is that the thermodynamic properties can be determined analytically, and are quite accurate for low valence electrolytes in aqueous solution at room temperature. The thermodynamics of the MSA for simple fluids is discussed by Hdye and Stell (1977). [Pg.100]

These data require extension but in a tentative manner the conclusions can be summarized in Figure 8 where the domains of coagulation and flocculation are represented. Moreover, these ideas have only been applied to sodium chloride. With higher valency electrolytes more specific effects may occur which could dominate the phenomena. [Pg.50]

When a 2 1 valence electrolyte is used, the membrane potential is as follows, [Pg.95]

For simplicity, we consider a charged cylindrical microcapillary of radius / w packed with charged mono-sized microparticles of diameter dp. The liquid in the microcapillary is assumed to be an incompressible, Newtonian, mono-valence electrolyte of density p and viscosity p,. The zeta potentials of the inner wall surface and the particle [Pg.508]

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