Since faults are zones of inherent weakness they may be reactivated over geologic time. Usually, faulting occurs well after the sediments have been deposited. An exception to this is a growth feu/f (also termed a syn-sedimentary fault), shown in Figure 5.7. They are extensional structures and can frequently be observed on seismic sections through deltaic sequences. The fault plane is curved and in a three dimensional view has the shape of a spoon. This type of plane is called listric. Growth faults can be visualised as submarine landslides caused by rapid deposition of large quantities of water-saturated... [Pg.81]

Having gathered and evaluated relevant reservoir data it is desirable to present this data in a way that allows easy visualisation of the subsurface situation. With a workstation it is easy to create a three dimensional picture of the reservoir, displaying the distribution of a variety of parameters, e.g. reservoir thickness or saturations. All realisations need to be in line with the geological model. [Pg.140]

Feiste, K.L. Stegemann, D. Reimehe, W. Three dimensional analysis of growing casting defects. International Symposium on Computerized Tomography for Industrial Applieatlons, 8.10. Junl 1994, Berlin... [Pg.17]

AUGUR software is used to obtain two- and three-dimensional images of defects using various coherent data processing methods, determine the sizes of defects in different sections, execute service and report preparation operations. [Pg.195]

The AUGUR information on defect configuration is used to develop the three-dimensional solid model of damaged pipeline weldment by the use of geometry editor. The editor options provide by easy way creation and changing of the solid model. This model is used for fracture analysis by finite element method with appropriate cross-section stress distribution and external loads. [Pg.196]

Three-Dimensional Ultrasonic Reflection Tomography of Cylindrical Shaped Specimens. [Pg.200]

There have been numerous efforts to inspect specimens by ultrasonic reflectivity (or pulse-echo) measurements. In these inspections ultrasonic reflectivity is often used to observe changes in the acoustical impedance, and from this observation to localize defects in the specimen. However, the term defect is related to any discontinuity within the specimen and, consequently, more information is needed than only ultrasonic reflectivity to define the discontinuity as a defect. This information may be provided by three-dimensional ultrasonic reflection tomography and a priori knowledge about the specimen (e.g., the specimen fabrication process, its design, the intended purpose and the material). A more comprehensive review of defect characterization and related nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods is provided elsewhere [1]. [Pg.200]

In this paper, discontinuities in cylindrical specimens were studied by ultrasonic reflection tomography. The aim was threefold. First, to localize discontinuities from circular C-scan images. Second, to reconstruct quantitative cross-sectional images from circular B-scan profiles (i.e., reflection tomograms). Finally, to obtain three-dimensional information (i.e., discontinuity location, dimension and type) by stacking these reflection tomograms in multiple planes, in the third dimension. [Pg.200]

Finally, by volumetric imaging Three-dimensional information was obtained by stacking reflection tomograms from multiple planes. Using this stacking technique, cubic voxels were obtained and could be numerically dissected in any plane. Although there are several attractive features related to this technique, there are also several questions which need to be addressed before it can be used for industrial applications. For example, the applied sound field must be further characterized. [Pg.206]

Altschuler M.D and Herman G. Fully three-dimensional image reconstruction using series expansion methods., A Review of Information Processing in Medical Imaging, Oak Ride National Lab., Oak Ride, TN, 1977, p.124-142. [Pg.219]

Gordon R., Bender R., Herman G.T. Algebraic reconstruction techniques (ART) for three-dimensional electron micrographs and X-ray photography., J. Theor. Biol., V. 29, 1970, p. 471-481. [Pg.220]

Grangeat P. Mathematical framework of cone beam three-dimensional reconstruction via the first derivative of the Radon transform.. Math. Methods in Tomography, V.1947 of Springer Lecturre Notes in Math-cs, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991, p.66-97. [Pg.220]

Schlindwein M. Interative three-dimensional reconstruction from twin-cone projections., IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., V. NS-25, 1978, p. 1135-1143. [Pg.220]

J. Mattsson., A.J. Niklasson and A. Eriksson, Three-Dimensional Ultrasonic Crack Detection in Anisotropic Materials, Res. Nondestr. Eval. 9 pp.59-79 (1997). [Pg.223]

For restoring of three-dimensional SD is used stated above approach. Under restoring of tomographic images for the base undertakes a function of three-dimensional total image, which after double differentiation and inverse projecting describes sought SD 8 (1) ... [Pg.251]

Approach to restoring of stresses SD in the three-dimensional event requires for each pixel determinations of matrix with six independent elements. Type of matrixes depends on chosen coordinate systems. It is arised a question, how to present such result for operator that he shall be able to value stresses and their SD. One of the possible ways is a calculation and a presenting in the form of image of SD of stresses tensor invariants. For three-dimensional SDS relative increase of time of spreading of US waves, polarized in directions of main axises of stresses tensor ... [Pg.252]

This type of coil was prepared from copper cladded printed circuit board material by applying photolithographic techniques. The p.c. board material is available with difierent copper thicknesses and with either a stiff or a flexible carrier. The flexible material offers the opportunity to adapt the planar coil to a curved three dimensional test object. In our turbine blade application this is a major advantage. The thickness of the copper layer was chosen to be 17 pm The period of the coil was 100 pm The coils were patterned by wet etching, A major advantage of this approach is the parallel processing with narrow tolerances, resulting in many identical Eddy current probes. An example of such a probe is shown in fig. 10. [Pg.303]

An Eddy Current Imaging System for Reconstruction of Three-Dimensional Flaws. [Pg.326]

Let us consider a domain U e R, representing the three-dimensional flaw imbedded in a homogeneous conductive media, with electric conductivity uo and permeability The flawed region D is assumed to be inhomogeneous, and characterized by the relative real conductivity ... [Pg.327]

We present in this paper an eddy current imaging system able to give an image of three-dimensional flaws. We implement a multifrequency linearized model for solving the 2590... [Pg.332]

Ij D. Premel, N. Madaoui, O. Venard, D. Placko, E. Savin "Art eddy current imaging system for reconstruction of three-dimensional flaws". To be published in the actes of 7th ECNDT Copenhagen 1998. [Pg.364]

The eombination in a compact system of an infrared sensor and a laser as excitation source is called a photothermal camera. The surface heating is aehieved by the absorption of the focused beam of a laser. This localisation of the heating permits a three-dimensional heat diffusion in the sample to be examined. The infrared (IR) emission of the surface in the neighbourhood of the heating spot is measured by an infrared detector. A full surface inspection is possible through a video scanning of the excitation and detection spots on the piece to test (figure 1). [Pg.393]

With this technology even boreholes, up to 2mm underneath the surface, can be identified, A remarkable borehole is represented in illustration 10, For the elucidation of the temperature contrast, a three-dimensional temperature distribution of the entire blade is shown beside the infrared picture (the similarity of the temperature distribution with the actual blade airfoil is purely coincidental). [Pg.406]

For simulation the whole object can be presented as a complex of Dirichlet cells in three-dimensional cylindrical coordinates (R - tp - Z - geometry) [2] (Fig.2). [Pg.419]

Three Dimensional Defect Analysis Using Stereoradioscopy Based on Camera Modelling. [Pg.484]

Doering, E.R. Basart,. I.P. Gray,. I.N. Three-dimensional flaw reconstruction and dimensional analysis using a real-time X-ray imaging system. NDT-I-E International, Vol. 26(1), 1993, pp. 7-17. [Pg.491]

In traditional Fan-Beam CT the radiation emitted from the X-ray tube is collimated to a planar fan, and so most of the intensity is wasted in the collimator blades (Fig. 2a). Cone-Beam CT, where the X-rays not only diverge in the horizontal, but also in the vertical direction, allows to use nearly the whole emitted beam-profile and so makes best use of the available LINAC photon flux (Fig. 2b). So fast scanning of the samples three-dimensional structure is possible. For Cone-Beam 3D-reconstruction special algorithms, taking in consideration the vertical beam divergence of the rays, were developed. [Pg.493]

Another efficient and practical method for exact 3D-reconstruction is the Grangeat algorithm [11]. First the derivative of the three-dimensional Radon transfomi is computed from the Cone-Beam projections. Afterwards the 3D-Object is reconstructed from the derivative of the Radon transform. At present time this method is not available for spiral orbits, instead two perpendicular circular trajectories are suitable to meet the above sufficiency condition. [Pg.494]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.3 , Pg.6 , Pg.223 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.351 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.31 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.13 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.3 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.15 , Pg.18 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.6 , Pg.9 , Pg.21 , Pg.48 , Pg.73 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.3 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.3 , Pg.10 , Pg.49 , Pg.51 , Pg.76 , Pg.86 , Pg.102 , Pg.103 , Pg.147 , Pg.154 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.3 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.167 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.408 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.2 , Pg.74 , Pg.116 , Pg.137 , Pg.138 , Pg.139 , Pg.164 , Pg.241 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.439 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.95 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.326 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.72 , Pg.76 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.3 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.361 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.115 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.27 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.192 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.121 , Pg.166 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.65 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.132 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.411 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.3 , Pg.117 , Pg.118 , Pg.119 , Pg.120 , Pg.121 , Pg.122 , Pg.123 , Pg.124 , Pg.125 , Pg.126 , Pg.175 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.135 , Pg.138 , Pg.140 , Pg.148 , Pg.152 , Pg.168 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.6 , Pg.371 , Pg.373 , Pg.383 , Pg.386 , Pg.392 , Pg.396 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.92 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.37 , Pg.58 , Pg.83 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.9 , Pg.69 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.192 , Pg.579 , Pg.731 , Pg.813 , Pg.874 , Pg.893 , Pg.894 , Pg.906 , Pg.913 , Pg.1011 , Pg.1013 , Pg.1086 , Pg.1121 , Pg.1246 , Pg.1390 , Pg.1409 , Pg.1432 , Pg.1485 , Pg.1487 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.71 , Pg.72 , Pg.73 ]

© 2019 chempedia.info