Dir, whereas for small distances d < r), /r Did. The large effective obtainable enables fast heterogeneous reaction rates to be measured under steady-state conditions. Zhou and Bard measured a rate constant of 6 x 10 Ms for the electro-hydrodimerization of acrylonitrile (AN) and observed the short-lived intennediate AN for this process [65]. [Pg.1942]

Hard-sphere models lack a characteristic energy scale and, hence, only entropic packing effects can be investigated. A more realistic modelling has to take hard-core-like repulsion at small distances and an attractive interaction at intennediate distances into account. In non-polar liquids the attraction is of the van der Waals type and decays with the sixth power of the interparticle distance r. It can be modelled in the fonn of a Leimard-Jones potential Fj j(r) between segments... [Pg.2365]

To start this study, we assume that the four points P, P, Q, and Q are at small distances from each other so that if... [Pg.723]

These properties arc also relevant if molecular interactions arc considered. In contrast to electrostatic potentials, they only take effect at small distances between interacting molecular regions,... [Pg.136]

In addition to this term, account must be taken of the decreasing screen in g of then iicleus by th e electron s as the in teratom ic dis-tance becomes very small,. At very small distances the core-core term should approach the classical form. To account for this, an additional term is added to the basic core-core repulsion integral in MlXnO/3 to give ... [Pg.283]

One cannot simply optimi/e the position of each atom in sequence and say the job is done. Any change in an atomic position brings about a small change in the forces on all the other atoms. Optimization has to be repeated until the lowest rnoleeular potential energy is found that satisfies all the forees on all the atoms. The final location of an atom will, in general, be at a position that is some small distance from the position it would have if it were not influenced by the other atoms in the molecule. [Pg.99]

Therefore, the magnitude of the stress at small distances from the crack tip is a function of the crack length, a, and the remotely appHed stress. O. Close to the crack tip (r ft) the stress can be scaled usiag a parameter called the stress intensity factor, K (9—11) ... [Pg.542]

Even in the absence of Faradaic current, ie, in the case of an ideally polarizable electrode, changing the potential of the electrode causes a transient current to flow, charging the double layer. The metal may have an excess charge near its surface to balance the charge of the specifically adsorbed ions. These two planes of charge separated by a small distance are analogous to a capacitor. Thus the electrode is analogous to a double-layer capacitance in parallel with a kinetic resistance. [Pg.64]

Deformation and Stress A fluid is a substance which undergoes continuous deformation when subjected to a shear stress. Figure 6-1 illustrates this concept. A fluid is bounded by two large paraU plates, of area A, separated by a small distance H. The bottom plate is held fixed. Application of a force F to the upper plate causes it to move at a velocity U. The fluid continues to deform as long as the force is applied, unlike a sohd, which would undergo only a finite deformation. [Pg.630]

In the cathodic protection of storage tanks, potentials should be measured in at least three places, i.e., at each end and at the top of the cover [16]. Widely different polarized areas arise due to the small distance which is normally the case between the impressed current anodes and the tank. Since such tanks are often buried under asphalt, it is recommended that permanent reference electrodes or fixed measuring points (plastic tubes under valve boxes) be installed. These should be located in areas not easily accessible to the cathodic protection current, for example between two tanks or between the tank wall and foundations. Since storage tanks usually have several anodes located near the tank, equalizing currents can flow between the differently loaded anodes on switching off the protection system and thus falsify the potential measurement. In such cases the anodes should be separated. [Pg.100]

The molecules of liquids are separated by relatively small distances so the attractive forces between molecules tend to hold firm within a definite volume at fixed temperature. Molecular forces also result in tlie phenomenon of interfacial tension. The repulsive forces between molecules exert a sufficiently powerful influence that volume changes caused by pressure changes can be neglected i.e. liquids are incompressible. [Pg.26]

If the contaminated airflow rate that is to be exhausted, or the internal pressure, varies too much it could be advantageous to use an exhaust connection with a small distance between tube and duct, acting as an opening for additional air when contaminant flow rare is low. This could be in the form of a large exterior hood covering the outlet from the process and leaving only a very small opening gap for external air (thimble). See Fig. 10.40. [Pg.878]

On the other hand, the formation of the high pressure phase is preceded by the passage of the first plastic wave. Its shock front is a surface on which point, linear and two-dimensional defects, which become crystallization centers at super-critical pressures, are produced in abundance. Apparently, the phase transitions in shock waves are always similar in type to martensite transitions. The rapid transition of one type of lattice into another is facilitated by nondilTusion martensite rearrangements they are based on the cooperative motion of many atoms to small distances. ... [Pg.39]

The properties of the periodic surfaces studied in the previous sections do not depend on the discretization procedure in the hmit of small distance between the lattice points. Also, the symmetry of the lattice does not seem to influence the minimization, at least in the limit of large N and small h. In the computer simulations the quantities which vary on the scale larger than the lattice size should have a well-defined value for large N. However, in reality we work with a lattice of a finite size, usually small, and the lattice spacing is rather large. Therefore we find that typical simulations of the same model may give diffferent quantitative results although quahtatively one obtains the same results. Here we compare in detail two different discretization... [Pg.712]

The spheres represent (roughly) the 2p atomic orbitals on C and N, and half an electron resides in each sphere. The mutual potential energy of this charge distribution can be easily calculated from elementary electrostatics. For small distances, a polynomial fit was used instead. [Pg.138]

Eydw is very positive at small distances, has a minimum which is slightly negative at a distance corresponding to the two atoms just touching each other, and goes towards zero as the distance becomes large. A general functional form which fits these considerations is... [Pg.19]

An elementary solid, such as silver, is regarded as composed of atoms oscillating about fixed centres. The total energy content is therefore partly kinetic and partly potential. Since the solid has a finite compressibility, the atoms may be supposed to be maintained at small distances apart by forces they exert upon one another, and these may be resolved into two sets, one of which opposes a closer approximation of the atoms, and the other tends to draw the latter together. Both are functions of the distance between the atoms, and for a given distance are equal, since the form of the body is altered by external forces alone. [Pg.517]

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