Kang and Jhon [9] showed that mean molecular polarizabiHties, a, can be estimated om atomic hybrid polarizabihties, by a simple additivity scheme summing over all N atoms (Eq. (6)). [Pg.322]

Rings can either stabilize or destabilize molecules beyond what is to be expected from a simple additivity scheme. Stabilization comes from aromatic ring systems... [Pg.325]

Clearly, simple additivity of atom properties will no longer suffice, as the contribution of an atom will diminish the hirther it is away from the atom whose property has to be estimated. In the following, we present two methods of accounting for the influence of one atom on another, attenuated over the distance between the two atoms. [Pg.329]

VVe now need to consider how the form of the wavefunction varies with k. The first situation we consider corresponds to fc = 0, where the exponential terms are all equal to 1 and the overall wavefunction becomes a simple additive linear combination of the atomic orbitals ... [Pg.161]

The conversion of carboxylic acid derivatives (halides, esters and lactones, tertiary amides and lactams, nitriles) into aldehydes can be achieved with bulky aluminum hydrides (e.g. DIBAL = diisobutylaluminum hydride, lithium trialkoxyalanates). Simple addition of three equivalents of an alcohol to LiAlH, in THF solution produces those deactivated and selective reagents, e.g. lithium triisopropoxyalanate, LiAlH(OPr )j (J. Malek, 1972). [Pg.96]

In the reaction of Q,/3-unsaturated ketones and esters, sometimes simple Michael-type addition (insertion and hydrogenolysis, or hydroarylation, and hydroalkenylation) of alkenes is observed[53,54]. For example, a simple addition product 56 to methyl vinyl ketone was obtained by the reaction of the heteroaromatic iodide 55[S5]. The corresponding bromide affords the usual insertion-elimination product. Saturated ketones are obtained cleanly by hydroarylation of o,/3l-unsaturated ketones with aryl halides in the presence of sodium formate, which hydrogenolyses the R—Pd—I intermediate to R— Pd—H[56]. Intramolecular hydroarylation is a useful reaction. The diiodide 57 reacts smoothly with sodium formate to give a model compound for the afla-toxin 58. (see Section 1.1.6)[57]. Use of triethylammonium formate and BU4NCI gives better results. [Pg.136]

Under CO pressure in alcohol, the reaction of alkenes and CCI4 proceeds to give branched esters. No carbonylation of CCI4 itself to give triichloroacetate under similar conditions is observed. The ester formation is e.xplained by a free radical mechanism. The carbonylation of l-octene and CCI4 in ethanol affords ethyl 2-(2,2,2-trichloroethyl)decanoate (924) as a main product and the simple addition product 925(774]. ... [Pg.263]

In 2,1-benzisoxazoles, halogenation with CI2 or Br2 leads to substitution in the 5-position, although the reaction appears to behave as a simple addition across a double bond. A... [Pg.25]

Treatment of natural rubber with chlorine gives a product, chlorinated rubber, with a maximum chlorine content of 65% corresponding to the empirical formula C10H11CI7. Such a compound corresponds neither to a hypothetical simple addition to the double bond (Figure 30.6 (I)) nor to a product with a-methylenic substitution in addition (II). [Pg.864]

Fluoride ion produced from the nucleophilic addition-elimination reactions of fluoroolefins can cataly7e isomerizations and rearrangements The reaction of per fluoro-3-methyl-l-butene with dimethylamine gives as products 1-/V,/Vdimeth-ylamino-1,1,2,2,4,4,4-heptafluoro-3-trifluoromethylbutane, N,W-dimetliyl-2,2,4,4,4-pentafluoro 3 trifluoromethylbutyramide, and approximately 3% of an unidentified olefin [10] The butylamide results from hydrolysis of the observed tertiary amine, and thus they share a common intermediate, l-Al,A -dimethylamino-l,l 24 44-hexafluoro-3-trifluoromethyl-2-butene, the product from the initial addition-elimination reaction (equation 4) The expected product from simple addition was not found... [Pg.743]

The simple addition of acrolein to enamines derived from aldehydes to give substituted glutardialdehydes has also been observed (54). [Pg.127]

The cancer risk equation described below estimates tlie incremental individual lifetime cancer risk for simultaneous exposure to several carcinogens and is based on EPA s risk assessment guidelines. Tliis equation represents an approximation of the precise equation for combining risks wliich accounts for tlie joint probabilities of tlie same individual developing cancer as a consequence of exposure to two or more carcinogens. The difference between tlie precise equation and tlie approximation described is negligible for total cancer risks less tlian 0.1. Thus, tlie simple additive equation is appropriate for most risk assessments. The cancer risk equation for multiple substances is given by ... [Pg.404]

Kohli et al. [27], for instance, showed that the tensile modulus of a highly drawn PC-TLCP composite could be modeled effectively by the simple additivity rule of mixtures, while the compression molded composite samples with a spherical TLCP morphology had moduli according to the inverse rule. In both cases, the tensile modulus of the TLCP (Ei,c) itself was assumed to be a constant value determined from a tensile test of the pure TLCP samples. But whether or not the dispersed TLCP fibers and deformed droplets have the same modulus as the bulk TLCP samples remains a question. [Pg.698]

The high efficiency of conversion of the diesel generator immediately restricts its potential improvement compared with gas turbines. With the simple addition of a boiler, the gas turbine can give a heat/power ratio of 2 1 compared with the diesel s 0.6 1. (The diesel heat/power... [Pg.185]

For each failure time, calculate the corresponding cumulative hazard value, which is the sum of its hazard value and the hazard values of all preceding failure times. This calculation is done recursively by simple addition. For example, for the generator fan failure at... [Pg.1047]

To balance equations 10.2 and 10.3 in terms of electrical charge it has been necessary to add four electrons to the right-hand side of equation 10.2 and to the left-hand-side of equation 10.3. However, simple addition and rationalisation of equations 10.2 and 10.3 yields equation 10.1. [Pg.110]

Let us first of all consider the simple additive rule R90, defined by... [Pg.238]

Thus, nitric oxide seems to react in a complex manner. Simple addition to existing ions and initiation of new reactions, which might involve even carbon bond scission, seem to occur. At present our study of this system is incomplete. We have not been able to reconcile the complexity of the spectra with the findings of Meisels which are otherwise supported by our rate constant determinations. [Pg.247]

Optical parametric oscillator (OPO, see 20) is the real equivalent to the radio frequency shifter however OPO can be replaced by a simple addition of a local oscillator (e.g. laser) through a beam splitter. Multiplication takes place at the level of detectors. For sake of S5mimetry, detectors can be placed at both output of the beam splitter, the intermediate frequency is then the output of the differential amplifier. [Pg.368]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.889 ]

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