Forces between the particles in a real gas or liquid affect the virial, and thence the pressure. The total virial for a real system equals the sum of an ideal gas part (—3P V) and a contribution due to interactions between the particles. The result obtained is [Pg.323]

Fig. 6. A fault tree for the pumped storage example of Figure 5. For a real system the tank and pump failures would be more precisely defined, or set as intermediate events having further definition by subsequent basic events and more detailed failure modes. |

The value of the additional degree of freedom s can change and so the time step in real tin can fluctuate. Thus regular time intervals in the extended system correspond to a trajecto of the real system which is unevenly space in time. [Pg.401]

Each state of the extended system that is generated by the molecular dynamics simulatic corresponds to a unique state of the real system. There is not, however, a dire correspondence between the velocities and the time in the real and the extended system The velocities of the atoms in the real system are given by [Pg.401]

An individual point in phase space, denoted by F, corresponds to a particular geometry of all the molecules in the system. There are many points in this phase space that will never occur in any real system, such as configurations with two atoms in the same place. In order to describe a real system, it is necessary to determine what configurations could occur and the probability of their occurrence. [Pg.12]

Other linear combinations of simple potentials are also widely used to mimic the interactions in real systems. An example is the following. [Pg.440]

In this section, we concentrate on a few examples to show the degree of relevance of the theory presented in the previous sections. For this purpose, we analyze the conical intersections of two real two-state systems and one real system resembling a tri-state case. [Pg.699]

Although the decomposition rate of peroxide is thus increased, the consequent lowering of steady-state peroxide concentration leaves the effective rate unchanged in the simple peroxide cycle kinetic scheme (25). In real systems, at certain critical levels, a catalyst can become an inhibitor (2,180). [Pg.342]

Ideal Adsorbed Solution Theory. Perhaps the most successful approach to the prediction of multicomponent equiUbria from single-component isotherm data is ideal adsorbed solution theory (14). In essence, the theory is based on the assumption that the adsorbed phase is thermodynamically ideal in the sense that the equiUbrium pressure for each component is simply the product of its mole fraction in the adsorbed phase and the equihbrium pressure for the pure component at the same spreadingpressure. The theoretical basis for this assumption and the details of the calculations required to predict the mixture isotherm are given in standard texts on adsorption (7) as well as in the original paper (14). Whereas the theory has been shown to work well for several systems, notably for mixtures of hydrocarbons on carbon adsorbents, there are a number of systems which do not obey this model. Azeotrope formation and selectivity reversal, which are observed quite commonly in real systems, ate not consistent with an ideal adsorbed [Pg.256]

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