Dependence of the fragility index, m, on the average coordination r for As-Se and As-S glasses (data from [54] and [68], respectively). [Pg.33]

A similar but opposite effect will occur if the solid had a higher excess energy than the liquid. In this case the melting points will be below those of the pure components. [Pg.237]

In systems that exhibit ideal liquid-phase behavior, the activity coefficients, Yi, are equal to unity and Eq. (13-124) simplifies to Raoult s law. For nonideal hquid-phase behavior, a system is said to show negative deviations from Raoult s law if Y < 1, and conversely, positive deviations from Raoult s law if Y > 1- In sufficiently nonide systems, the deviations may be so large the temperature-composition phase diagrams exhibit extrema, as own in each of the three parts of Fig. 13-57. At such maxima or minima, the equihbrium vapor and liqmd compositions are identical. Thus,... [Pg.1293]

Constant molal overflow from stage to stage (theoretical) for simple ideal systems following Raoult s Law. More complicated techniques apply for nonideal systems. [Pg.15]

This graphical representation is easier to use for nonideal systems than the calculation method. This is another limiting condition for column operation, i.e., below this ratio the specified separation cannot be made even with infinite plates. This minimum reflux ratio can be determined graphically from Figure 8-23, as the line with smallest slope from xp intersecting the equilibrium line at the same point as the q line for mixture following Raoul t s Law. [Pg.29]

Experimental determination of the surface composition in nonideal systems, in which the gradients extend over several layers inwards the crystal is as difficult as the exact calculations. Therefore, one has to make again rather unpleasant assumptions. [Pg.269]

By virtue of the function (3.6), concentrations, which are readify determined parameters, can be used instead of chemical potentials in the thermodynamic equations for ideal systems. The simple connection between the concentrations and chemical potentials is lost in real systems. To facilitate the changeover from ideal to nonideal systems and to avoid the use of two different sets of equations in chemical thermodynamics,... [Pg.38]

When monomers with dependent groups are involved in a polycondensation, the sequence distribution in the macromolecules can differ under equilibrium and nonequilibrium regimes of the process performance. This important peculiarity, due to the violation in these nonideal systems of the Flory principle, is absent in polymers which are synthesized under the conditions of the ideal polycondensation model. Just this circumstance deems it necessary for a separate theoretical consideration of equilibrium and nonequilibrium polycondensation. [Pg.189]

There are several ways of obtaining functionals for nonideal systems. In most cases the free energy functional is expressed as the sum of an ideal gas term, a hard-sphere term, and a term due to attractive forces. Below, I present a scheme by which approximate expression for the free energy functional may be obtained. This approach relies on the relationship between the free energy functional and the direct correlation function. Because the direct correlation functions are defined through functional derivatives of the excess free energy functional, that is,... [Pg.118]

CHEMKIN REAL-GAS A Fortran Package for Analysis of Thermodynamic Properties and Chemical Kinetics in Nonideal Systems, Schmitt, R. G., Butler, P. B. and French, N. B. The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA. Report UIME PBB 93-006,1993. A Fortran program (rglib.f and rgin-terp.f) used in connection with CHEMKIN-II that incorporates several real-gas equations of state into kinetic and thermodynamic calculations. The real-gas equations of state provided include the van der Waals, Redlich-Kwong, Soave, Peng-Robinson, Becker-Kistiakowsky-Wilson, and Nobel-Abel. [Pg.749]

Although M(i j i j) = M Sj 5j) for both ideal and nonideal systems, the enantiomers and 5j are differentiated by the presence of a second different chir molecule (e.g., either i jj or 5jj). Two pairs of enantiomers are capable of four other types of intermolecular association, in addition to the three already mentioned in Table 1. These are conveniently diagrammed in Figure 1,... [Pg.200]

In both cases the GPF formalism can, in principle, give the BI of a nonideal system, with respect to either the adsorbent or the ligand molecules. This is not possible if one uses the phenomenological approach as described in Section 2.3. [Pg.320]

Thermodynamics cannot provide the extension to the BP for nonideal systems (with respect to either the ligands or the adsorbent molecules). The statistical mechanical approach can, in principle, provide corrections for the nonideality of the system. An example is worked out in Appendix D. [Pg.359]

At low or moderate pressure, when the liquid phase is incompressible, an activity coefficient model (y model) is more flexible to use than an equation of state. This method often works, even for strongly nonideal systems involving polar and associating components. [Pg.425]

Similar to binary diffusivities, each element in the diffusivity matrix is expected to depend on composition, sometimes strongly, especially for highly nonideal systems. If the nonideality is strong enough to cause a miscibility gap, the eigenvalues would vary from positive to zero and to negative. If there is no miscibility gap, the eigenvalues are positive but can still vary with composition. [Pg.263]

As also seen in Table I, the micellar composition can be a-f-fected substantially by nonideality. In -fact, azeotropic behavior in the monomer—micelle equilibrium is possible -for these nonideal systems i.e., as the monomer composition varies -from pure A to pure B, the micelle can vary -from Xn > y to Xn = y (azeotrope) to Xa < yA. This azeotrope -formation is illustrated -for the cationic/nonionic system in Figure 2, where an azeotrope -forms at Xa = yA = 0.3. The minimum CMC -for a mixture corresponds to the azeotropic composition i-f an azeotrope is present (32.37). For an ideal system, azeotropic behavior is not observed. [Pg.11]

Equations 3 and 4 are derived from Equation 5 (31) which has been Found to be invalid For the systems oF interest. However, Equations 3 and 4 have been shown to accurately describe mixture CMC values and monomer-micelle equilibrium. The resolution is that Equations 3 and 4 should be considered as valuable empirical equations to describe these nonideal systems. The Fact that they were originally derived From regular solution theory is a historical coincidence. [Pg.13]

Payens, T.A.J., Brinkhuis, J.A., van Markwijk, B.W. (1969). Self-association in nonideal systems. Combined light scattering and sedimentation measurements in p-casein solutions. Biochimica etBiophysica Acta, 175, 434 137. [Pg.227]

This means from the Boltzmann equation follows only the conservation of the kinetic energy. But, in nonideal systems, the average of kinetic and potential energy as a sum should be covered. [Pg.191]

As mentioned in Section 2.1, the usual Boltzmann equation conserves the kinetic energy only. In this sense the Boltzmann equation is referred to as an equation for ideal systems. For nonideal systems we will show that the binary density operator, in the three-particle collision approximation, provides for an energy conservation up to the next-higher order in the density (second virial coefficient). For this reason we consider the time derivative of the mean value of the kinetic energy,12 16 17... [Pg.196]

In each case these parameters represent differences between the state function of the activated complex in a particular standard state and the state function of the reactants referred to in the same standard state. One is giving all the characteristics of a thermodynamic equilibrium constant, although it should be multiplied by a transitional partition function. For ideal systems the magnitude of AH° does not depend on the choice of standard state, and for most of the nonideal systems that are encountered the dependence is slight. For all systems, the magnitudes of AG° and AS0 depend strongly on the choice of standard state, so it is not useful to... [Pg.34]

However, the general form of the curve on the left-hand side of Fig. 10 is followed even in nonideal systems. Looking at the right-hand side of Fig. 10, we see that as A is added to pure B, the freezing point of the solution is also lowered. (We have also assumed that B does not form solid solutions.) Alternatively, this can be described as reducing the solubility of B in the solution as the temperature of the solution is lowered below the freezing point of pure B. At an intermediate concentration, the two solubility curves in Fig. 10 meet at point e and a solution with the lowest freezing point is obtained. This solution is known as the eutectic and the concentration and temperature at point e, is known as the eutectic concentration and temperature. [Pg.251]

This method handles narrow-boiling, wide-boiling, and highly nonideal systems efficiently. [Pg.131]

For nonideal systems, the fugacities of component i in the vapor and in the liquid play the same role as the component partial pressure in the vapor and the component vapor pressure in the liquid. The fugacity can be regarded as a thermodynamic pressure, For equilibrium, vapor fugacity is equal to liquid ftigacity, i.e.,... [Pg.7]

Where constant molar overflow does not work well, such as with nonideal systems or where there is a drastic difference between internal vapor and liquid rates. Section 2.2.2 discusses the applicability of constant molal overflow. [Pg.148]

For some systems, the initial values have to be near the expected solution results. For superfractionators, and columns with purity specifications and highly nonideal systems, the initial temperature profile should be near the expected results. For narrow-boiling systems, an accurate reflux estimate is necessary. [Pg.148]

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