The very hard materials can be checked using the standard pressure settings. For softer materials, this will cause undue distortions. The micrometer or vernier calipers need to be gently passed over the item. The faces of the instrument must just touch the surface. This can be felt through the instrument as a very mild resistance. The measurements will represent the high points on the surface. [Pg.165]

The micrometers and calipers must be zero-checked before use and regularly checked against standard test blocks. Standard tests for taking dimensions include [Pg.165]

ASTM D3768-03 BS 903 PA38 Standard practice for rubber-measurement of dimensions Methods for determination of dimensions of test pieces and products for test purposes [Pg.165]

Altliough tire tlieories of colloid stability and aggregation kinetics were developed several decades ago, tire actual stmcture of aggregates has only been studied more recently. To describe tire stmcture, we start witli tire relationship between tire size of an aggregate (linear dimension), expressed as its radius of gyration and its mass m ... [Pg.2684]

For tire purjDoses of tliis review, a nanocrystal is defined as a crystalline solid, witli feature sizes less tlian 50 nm, recovered as a purified powder from a chemical syntliesis and subsequently dissolved as isolated particles in an appropriate solvent. In many ways, tliis definition shares many features witli tliat of colloids , defined broadly as a particle tliat has some linear dimension between 1 and 1000 nm [1] tire study of nanocrystals may be drought of as a new kind of colloid science [2]. Much of die early work on colloidal metal and semiconductor particles stemmed from die photophysics and applications to electrochemistry. (See, for example, die excellent review by Henglein [3].) However, the definition of a colloid does not include any specification of die internal stmcture of die particle. Therein lies die cmcial distinction in nanocrystals, die interior crystalline stmcture is of overwhelming importance. Nanocrystals must tmly be little solids (figure C2.17.1), widi internal stmctures equivalent (or nearly equivalent) to drat of bulk materials. This is a necessary condition if size-dependent studies of nanometre-sized objects are to offer any insight into die behaviour of bulk solids. [Pg.2899]

The numerical values of and a, for a particular sample, which will depend on the kind of linear dimension chosen, cannot be calculated a priori except in the very simplest of cases. In practice one nearly always has to be satisfied with an approximate estimate of their values. For this purpose X is best taken as the mean projected diameter d, i.e. the diameter of a circle having the same area as the projected image of the particle, when viewed in a direction normal to the plane of greatest stability is determined microscopically, and it includes no contributions from the thickness of the particle, i.e. from the dimension normal to the plane of greatest stability. For perfect cubes and spheres, the value of the ratio x,/a ( = K, say) is of course equal to 6. For sand. Fair and Hatch found, with rounded particles 6T, with worn particles 6-4, and with sharp particles 7-7. For crushed quartz, Cartwright reports values of K ranging from 14 to 18, but since the specific surface was determined by nitrogen adsorption (p. 61) some internal surface was probably included. f... [Pg.36]

Calculate the sample s volume using appropriate linear dimensions. [Pg.99]

We began this section with an inquiry into how to define the size of a polymer molecule. In addition to the molecular weight or the degree of polymerization, some linear dimension which characterizes the molecule could also be used for this purpose. For purposes of orientation, let us again consider a hydrocarbon molecule stretched out to its full length but without any bond distortion. There are several features to note about this situation ... [Pg.5]

The above discussion points out the difficulty associated with using the linear dimensions of a molecule as a measure of its size It is not the molecule alone that determines its dimensions, but also the shape in which it exists. Linear arrangements of the sort described above exist in polymer crystals, at least for some distance, although not over the full length of the chain. We shall take up the structure of polymer crystals in Chap. 4. In the solution and bulk states, many polymers exist in the coiled form we have also described. Still other structures are important, notably the helix, which we shall discuss in Sec. 1.11. The overall shape assumed by a polymer molecule is greatly affected... [Pg.6]

Whenever a phase is characterized by at least one linear dimension which is small, the properties of the surface begin to make significant contributions to the observed behavior. We shall examine the structure of polymer crystals in more detail in Sec. 4.7, but for now the following summary of generalizations about these crystals will be helpful ... [Pg.211]

Dispersion Model An impulse input to a stream flowing through a vessel may spread axially because of a combination of molecular diffusion and eddy currents that together are called dispersion. Mathematically, the process can be represented by Fick s equation with a dispersion coefficient replacing the diffusion coefficient. The dispersion coefficient is associated with a linear dimension L and a linear velocity in the Peclet number, Pe = uL/D. In plug flow, = 0 and Pe oq and in a CSTR, oa and Pe = 0. [Pg.2089]

On the base of the developed mathematical models was developed regression model of the atomizer efficiency via main design pai ameters such as linear dimensions and operation temperatures. [Pg.84]

From the above the resistance to ground of a plate grounding is inversely proportional to the square root of the linear dimension fA) of the plate. The variation in resistance with the size of the plate is shown in Figure 22.2. Considering the resistivity of soil as 10 k2m, since the ground resistance is proportional to the resistivity of soil, there would be different parallel curves for the ground resistance for different values of resistivity of soil. [Pg.697]

Figure 22.2 Variation in resistance to ground with the linear dimensions lor a plate gounding, for the same resistivity of soil... |

Physical modeling involves searching for the same or nearly the same similarity criteria for the model and the real process. The full-scale process is modeled on an increasing scale with the principal linear dimensions scaled-up in proportion, based on the similarity principle. For relatively simple systems, the similarity criteria and physical modeling are acceptable because the number of criteria involved is limited. For complex systems and processes involving a complex system of equations, a large set of similarity criteria is required, which are not simultaneously compatible and, as a consequence, cannot be realized. [Pg.1037]

Fullwood and Erdman, 1983 circumvent this problem by comparing risk as cubes in which linear dimensions are the cube root of the volume/risk. Figure 1.4.3-5 compares the risks associated with nuclear fuel reprocessing, refabrication and waste disposal with nonnuclear risks. [Pg.11]

There are numerous possible applications for air curtains. For example, air curtains may be used to heat a body of linear dimensions (as used to move the fresh snow from the railway exchanges in Canada) to function as a partition between two parts of one volume to function as a partition between an internal room and an external environment, that have different thermodynamic properties and to shield an opening in a small working volume (see Section 10.4.6). [Pg.937]

The adsorption transition also shows up in the behavior of the chain linear dimension. Fig. 6(a) shows the mean-square gyration radii parallel, i gl, and perpendicular, to the adsorbing plate. While these components do not differ from each other for e

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