A low Reynolds number indicates laminar flow and a paraboHc velocity profile of the type shown in Figure la. In this case, the velocity of flow in the center of the conduit is much greater than that near the wall. If the operating Reynolds number is increased, a transition point is reached (somewhere over Re = 2000) where the flow becomes turbulent and the velocity profile more evenly distributed over the interior of the conduit as shown in Figure lb. This tendency to a uniform fluid velocity profile continues as the pipe Reynolds number is increased further into the turbulent region. [Pg.55]

Hannart, B. and Hoplinger, E.J., 1998. Laminar flow in a rectangular diffuser near Hele-Sliaw conditions - a two dinien.sioiial numerical simulation. In Bush, A. W., Lewis, B. A. and Warren, M.D. (eds), Flow Modelling in Industrial Processes, cli. 9, Ellis Horwood, Chichester, pp. 110-118. [Pg.189]

The first term (AQ) is the pressure drop due to laminar flow, and the FQ term is the pressure drop due to turbulent flow. The A and F factors can be determined by well testing, or from the fluid and reservoir properties, if known. [Pg.217]

Most flow meters are designed and caHbrated for use on turbulent flow, by far the more common fluid condition. Measurements of laminar flow rates may be seriously in error unless the meter selected is insensitive to velocity profile or is specifically caHbrated for the condition of use. [Pg.55]

Fig. 5. Entrance flows in a tube or duct (a) separation at sharp edge (b) growth of a boundary layer (illustrated for laminar flow). |

Lambert s cosine law Lambic beer Lamb modes Lambs Lamb wave Lamellae Lamepon Laminar flow Laminated fabrics Laminated glass [Pg.550]

Fig. 5. Moody diagram for Darcy friction factor (13) (-----), smooth flow (----), whoUy turbulent flow ( ), laminar flow. |

Table 1. Heat of Ablation and Relative Thermal Conductivity for Reentry Vehicle Materials Assuming Laminar Flow |

Averaging the velocity using equation 50 yields the weU-known Hagen-Poiseuille equation (see eq. 32) for laminar flow of Newtonian fluids in tubes. The momentum balance can also be used to describe the pressure changes at a sudden expansion in turbulent flow (Fig. 21b). The control surface 2 is taken to be sufficiently far downstream that the flow is uniform but sufficiently close to surface 3 that wall shear is negligible. The additional important assumption is made that the pressure is uniform on surface 3. The conservation equations are then applied as follows [Pg.108]

The shear stress is hnear with radius. This result is quite general, applying to any axisymmetric fuUy developed flow, laminar or turbulent. If the relationship between the shear stress and the velocity gradient is known, equation 50 can be used to obtain the relationship between velocity and pressure drop. Thus, for laminar flow of a Newtonian fluid, one obtains [Pg.108]

In configurations more complex than pipes, eg, flow around bodies or through nozzles, additional shearing stresses and velocity gradients must be accounted for. More general equations for some simple fluids in laminar flow are described in Reference 1. [Pg.96]

Entrance flow is also accompanied by the growth of a boundary layer (Fig. 5b). As the boundary layer grows to fill the duct, the initially flat velocity profile is altered to yield the profile characteristic of steady-state flow in the downstream duct. For laminar flow in a tube, the distance required for the velocity at the center line to reach 99% of its asymptotic values is given by [Pg.91]

It is also possible to simulate nonequilibrium systems. For example, a bulk liquid can be simulated with periodic boundary conditions that have shifting boundaries. This results in simulating a flowing liquid with laminar flow. This makes it possible to compute properties not measurable in a static fluid, such as the viscosity. Nonequilibrium simulations give rise to additional technical difficulties. Readers of this book are advised to leave nonequilibrium simulations to researchers specializing in this type of work. [Pg.305]

The concept of the specific resistance used in equation 4 is based on the assumptions that flow is one-dimensional, growth of cake is unrestricted, only soHd and Hquid phases are present, the feed is sufficiently dilute such that the soHds are freely suspended, the filtrate is free of soHds, pressure losses in feed and filtrate piping are negligible, and flow is laminar. Laminar flow is a vaHd assumption in most cake formation operations of practical interest. [Pg.392]

In the forced convection heat transfer, the heat-transfer coefficient, mainly depends on the fluid velocity because the contribution from natural convection is negligibly small. The dependence of the heat-transfer coefficient, on fluid velocity, which has been observed empirically (1—3), for laminar flow inside tubes, is h for turbulent flow inside tubes, h and for flow outside tubes, h. Flow may be classified as laminar or [Pg.483]

In general, extreme care has to be taken when LB films are prepared, since tire quality of the resulting films depends cmcially on tire preparation conditions. The best place for an LB trough is a laboratory where tire surroundings, i.e. temperature, humidity and atmosphere, are completely controlled. Often it is placed in a laminar flow box. Also, tire trough should be installed in a shock-free environment. [Pg.2611]

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