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** Equivalent isotropic displacement coefficients **

** Isotropic dielectric coefficient **

** Isotropic scattering coefficient **

If the isotropic coefficient is specified to be unity, a is just the total (integrated) cross-section. In Appendix A, an alternative quantum mechanical expression for this cross-section is obtained in the electric dipole approximation. By comparing the two expressions, it can be seen that the Legendre polynomial coefficients in Eq. (11) may be obtained from the inner summation terms in Eq. (A.15). Hence, the Legendre polynomial coefficients are... [Pg.276]

The isotropic coefficient and the anisotropic coefficients b(m> and c(m) can have both bulk and surface contributions and depend on crystal symmetry. The linear and nonlinear dielectric constants of the material, as well as the appropriate Fresnel factors at co and 2co, are incorporated into the constants a, b m) and c(m). Table 3.1 shows the susceptibilities contained in each of these constants. The models of Tom... [Pg.152]

We call the correlation time it is equal to 1/6 Dj, where Dj is the rotational diffusion coefficient. The correlation time increases with increasing molecular size and with increasing solvent viscosity, equation Bl.13.11 and equation B 1.13.12 describe the rotational Brownian motion of a rigid sphere in a continuous and isotropic medium. With the Lorentzian spectral densities of equation B 1.13.12. it is simple to calculate the relevant transition probabilities. In this way, we can use e.g. equation B 1.13.5 to obtain for a carbon-13... [Pg.1504]

For isotropic media we will assume tliat P is parallel to E witli tire coefficient of proportionality independent of direction ... [Pg.2856]

Explicit forms of the coefficients Tt and A depend on the coordinate system employed, the level of approximation applied, and so on. They can be chosen, for example, such that a part of the coupling with other degrees of freedom (typically stretching vibrations) is accounted for. In the space-fixed coordinate system at the infinitesimal bending vibrations, Tt + 7 reduces to the kinetic energy operator of a two-dimensional (2D) isotropic haiinonic oscillator. [Pg.480]

Generally, Oijki depends on x. The isotropic solid is characterized by the constant coefficients Oijki of the form... [Pg.2]

In the derivation of equations 24—26 (60) it is assumed that the cylinder is made of a material which is isotropic and initially stress-free, the temperature does not vary along the length of the cylinder, and that the effect of temperature on the coefficient of thermal expansion and Young s modulus maybe neglected. Furthermore, it is assumed that the temperatures everywhere in the cylinder are low enough for there to be no relaxation of the stresses as a result of creep. [Pg.85]

Dimensional Stability. Plastics, ia general, are subject to dimensional change at elevated temperature. One important change is the expansion of plastics with increa sing temperature, a process that is also reversible. However, the coefficient of thermal expansion (GTE), measured according to ASTM E831, frequendy is not linear with temperature and may vary depending on the direction in which the sample is tested, that is, samples may not be isotropic (Eig. 7). [Pg.448]

Infrared ellipsometry is typically performed in the mid-infrared range of 400 to 5000 cm , but also in the near- and far-infrared. The resonances of molecular vibrations or phonons in the solid state generate typical features in the tanT and A spectra in the form of relative minima or maxima and dispersion-like structures. For the isotropic bulk calculation of optical constants - refractive index n and extinction coefficient k - is straightforward. For all other applications (thin films and anisotropic materials) iteration procedures are used. In ellipsometry only angles are measured. The results are also absolute values, obtained without the use of a standard. [Pg.271]

The change in shape of a material when it is subjected to a change in temperature is determined by the coefficient of thermal expansion, aj- Normally for isotropic materials the value of aj will be the same in all directions. For convenience this is often taken to be the case in plastics but one always needs... [Pg.61]

In Section 2.2, the stress-strain relations (generalized Hooke s law) for anisotropic and orthotropic as well as isotropic materials are discussed. These relations have two commonly accepted manners of expression compliances and stiffnesses as coefficients (elastic constants) of the stress-strain relations. The most attractive form of the stress-strain relations for orthotropic materials involves the engineering constants described in Section 2.3. The engineering constants are particularly helpful in describing composite material behavior because they are defined by the use of very obvious and simple physical measurements. Restrictions in the form of bounds are derived for the elastic constants in Section 2.4. These restrictions are useful in understanding the unusual behavior of composite materials relative to conventional isotropic materials. Attention is focused in Section 2.5 on stress-strain relations for an orthotropic material under plane stress conditions, the most common use of a composite lamina. These stress-strain relations are transformed in Section 2.6 to coordinate systems that are not aligned with the principal material... [Pg.118]

Lateral density fluctuations are mostly confined to the adsorbed water layer. The lateral density distributions are conveniently characterized by scatter plots of oxygen coordinates in the surface plane. Fig. 6 shows such scatter plots of water molecules in the first (left) and second layer (right) near the Hg(l 11) surface. Here, a dot is plotted at the oxygen atom position at intervals of 0.1 ps. In the first layer, the oxygen distribution clearly shows the structure of the substrate lattice. In the second layer, the distribution is almost isotropic. In the first layer, the oxygen motion is predominantly oscillatory rather than diffusive. The self-diffusion coefficient in the adsorbate layer is strongly reduced compared to the second or third layer [127]. The data in Fig. 6 are qualitatively similar to those obtained in the group of Berkowitz and coworkers [62,128-130]. These authors compared the structure near Pt(lOO) and Pt(lll) in detail and also noted that the motion of water in the first layer is oscillatory about equilibrium positions and thus characteristic of a solid phase, while the motion in the second layer has more... [Pg.361]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.156 , Pg.162 , Pg.164 , Pg.173 , Pg.174 ]

** Equivalent isotropic displacement coefficients **

** Isotropic dielectric coefficient **

** Isotropic scattering coefficient **

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