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** External electronic perturbations, spectroscopy **

If the external perturbation is turned on witii a time dependent fiinction F(t) and H takes the fomi AF(t)... [Pg.710]

Rule A. The transition rate (probability per unit tune) for a transition from state O of a quanPim system to a number p( ) of continuum states 4) by an external perturbation V is... [Pg.2021]

The probability of a transition —>/resulting from any external perturbation which impulsively transfers momentum q to the internal momenta of the electrons of the target system is... [Pg.2025]

The mathematical machinery needed to compute the rates of transitions among molecular states induced by such a time-dependent perturbation is contained in time-dependent perturbation theory (TDPT). The development of this theory proceeds as follows. One first assumes that one has in-hand all of the eigenfunctions

It should be stressed that the MCSCF wavefunetion yields espeeially eompaet expressions for responses of E with respeet to an external perturbation beeause of the variational eonditions... [Pg.512]

Two states /a and /b that are eigenfunctions of a Hamiltonian Hq in the absence of some external perturbation (e.g., electromagnetic field or static electric field or potential due to surrounding ligands) can be "coupled" by the perturbation V only if the symmetries of V and of the two wavefunctions obey a so-called selection rule. In particular, only if the coupling integral (see Appendix D which deals with time independent perturbation theory)... [Pg.596]

Detailed reaction dynamics not only require that reagents be simple but also that these remain isolated from random external perturbations. Theory can accommodate that condition easily. Experiments have used one of three strategies. (/) Molecules ia a gas at low pressure can be taken to be isolated for the short time between coUisions. Unimolecular reactions such as photodissociation or isomerization iaduced by photon absorption can sometimes be studied between coUisions. (2) Molecular beams can be produced so that motion is not random. Molecules have a nonzero velocity ia one direction and almost zero velocity ia perpendicular directions. Not only does this reduce coUisions, it also aUows bimolecular iateractions to be studied ia intersecting beams and iacreases the detail with which unimolecular processes that can be studied, because beams facUitate dozens of refined measurement techniques. (J) Means have been found to trap molecules, isolate them, and keep them motionless at a predetermined position ia space (11). Thus far, effort has been directed toward just manipulating the molecules, but the future is bright for exploiting the isolated molecules for kinetic and dynamic studies. [Pg.515]

As mentioned above, the interpretation of CL cannot be unified under a simple law, and one of the fundamental difficulties involved in luminescence analysis is the lack of information on the competing nonradiative processes present in the material. In addition, the influence of defects, the surface, and various external perturbations (such as temperature, electric field, and stress) have to be taken into account in quantitative CL analysis. All these make the quantification of CL intensities difficult. Correlations between dopant concentrations and such band-shape parameters as the peak energy and the half-width of the CL emission currently are more reliable as means for the quantitative analysis of the carrier concentration. [Pg.154]

The k p method provides analytic descriptions on electronic states of CNT. It shows, for example, that the band gap of a semiconducting CNT is inversely proportional to the diameter because of a linear dispersion of the bands. It is suitable also for descriptions of the electronic motion in external perturbations such as electric and magnetic fields. [Pg.63]

Radiative Corrections Negaton in an External Field.— The content of the previous sections of this chapter can be summarized by saying that the essential properties of the vacuum- and one-particle states in the absence of external perturbations are that they are steady ... [Pg.707]

In other words, there are no observable consequences of the one-particle systems in the absence of external perturbations besides these the mass of the one-electron state is m, that of the photon is zero, the electric charge of the negaton is — e,10 and that of the positon, +e. [Pg.708]

Taken together. Figs 17-2, 4-13, 17-3, and 1-2 constitute a complex image of the Earth s climate system, including most of the factors that are known to be involved. However, such diagrams fail to adequately represent the dynamical nature of the totality of interactions of all of the parts. In order to explore these interactions, the natural variability of climate, and changes due to external perturbations, we must now introduce the key notions of forcings, feedbacks, and responses. [Pg.441]

The actual workings of the coupled biogeo-chemical and physical climate system, the ways that it responds to external perturbations, and the ways that it approaches or departs from a... [Pg.442]

In order to understand the stable states of complex systems, it is useful to imderstand how the system responds to external perturbations. Externally imposed changes in the energy balance of the planet are referred to as forcings,... [Pg.444]

The field- and time-dependent cluster operator is defined as T t, ) = nd HF) is the SCF wavefunction of the unperturbed molecule. By keeping the Hartree-Fock reference fixed in the presence of the external perturbation, a two step approach, which would introduce into the coupled cluster wavefunction an artificial pole structure form the response of the Hartree Fock orbitals, is circumvented. The quasienergy W and the time-dependent coupled cluster equations are determined by projecting the time-dependent Schrodinger equation onto the Hartree-Fock reference and onto the bra states (HF f[[exp(—T) ... [Pg.115]

A wide variety of ID and wD NMR techniques are available. In many applications of ID NMR spectroscopy, the modification of the spin Hamiltonian plays an essential role. Standard techniques are double resonance for spin decoupling, multipulse techniques, pulsed-field gradients, selective pulsing, sample spinning, etc. Manipulation of the Hamiltonian requires an external perturbation of the system, which may either be time-independent or time-dependent. Time-independent... [Pg.327]

The general experimental approach used in 2D correlation spectroscopy is based on the detection of dynamic variations of spectroscopic signals induced by an external perturbation (Figure 7.43). Various molecular-level excitations may be induced by electrical, thermal, magnetic, chemical, acoustic, or mechanical stimulations. The effect of perturbation-induced changes in the local molecular environment may be manifested by time-dependent fluctuations of various spectra representing the system. Such transient fluctuations of spectra are referred to as dynamic spectra of the system. Apart from time, other physical variables in a generalised 2D correlation analysis may be temperature, pressure, age, composition, or even concentration. [Pg.560]

correlation spectroscopy is very wide [1007], Most multidimensional techniques arise from the correlation of frequency domains in the presence of external perturbations, as in NMR. For applications of multidimensional NMR spectroscopy and NMR diffusion measurements, see Sections 5.4.1 and 5.4.1.1. [Pg.562]

If the transition dipoles are aligned in a head-to-tail formation, then a red shift is expected. This is the reported explanation for the sharp bands at 573 and 578 (J bands). The narrow half-bandwidths of the split J aggregate absorption suggest that the exciton states are not strongly coupled with external perturbations. The two distinct electronic transitions were proposed to arise from two structural modifications of the aggregates. [Pg.456]

Figure 5 is an ORTEP computer plot of the first 50 backbone carbons in a typical chain. Only the fluorine atoms of the sidechains are shown. The various hard sphere exclusions conspire dramatically to keep the fluorines well separated and the chain highly extended even without introducing any external perturbations. The characteristic ratio from the computer calculations is about 11.6 from data for poly(p-chlorostyrene), CR = I l.l, poly(p-bromostyrene), CR = 12.3, and poly(styrene), CR = 10.3 (all in toluene at 30°C), we expect the experimental value for the fluoro-polymer to be in the range of 10 to 12. [Pg.286]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.184 , Pg.185 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.131 ]

** External electronic perturbations, spectroscopy **

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